Timo A. Lakka, MD, PhD; Jari A. Laukkanen, MD; Rainer Rauramaa, MD, PhD; Riitta Salonen, MD, PhD; Hanna-Maaria Lakka, MD; George A. Kaplan, PhD; Jukka T. Salonen, MD, PhD, MScPH
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Juha M. Venäläinen, Esko Taskinen, and Hannu Litmanen for their participation in the supervision of exercise tests and Kristiina Nyyssönen and Kari Seppänen for supervising laboratory measurements. They also thank the staff of the Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, and the Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Kuopio, Finland, for data collection in the KIHD.
Grant Support: By the Academy of Finland (41471, 1041086, and 2041022); the Finnish Ministry of Education (167/722/96, 157/722/97, and 156/722/98); and the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grant HL44199).
Requests for Single Reprints: Timo A. Lakka, MD, PhD, Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. T.A. Lakka, Laukkanen, R. Salonen, H.-M. Lakka, and J.T. Salonen: Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.
Dr. Rauramaa: Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Haapaniementie 16, 70100 Kuopio, Finland.
Dr. Kaplan: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: T.A. Lakka, J.A. Laukkanen, R. Rauramaa, R. Salonen, G.A. Kaplan, J.T. Salonen.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: T.A. Lakka, J.A. Laukkanen, R. Rauramaa, H.-M. Lakka.
Drafting of the article: T.A. Lakka, J.A. Laukkanen, H.-M. Lakka, G.A. Kaplan.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: T.A. Lakka, J.A. Laukkanen, R. Rauramaa, H.-M. Lakka, G.A. Kaplan, J.T. Salonen.
Final approval of the article: T.A. Lakka, J.A. Laukkanen, R. Rauramaa, R. Salonen, H.-M. Lakka, G.A. Kaplan, J.T. Salonen.
Provision of study materials or patients: T.A. Lakka, R. Salonen, G.A. Kaplan, J.T. Salonen.
Statistical expertise: T.A. Lakka, H.-M. Lakka, J.T. Salonen.
Obtaining of funding: T.A. Lakka, R. Rauramaa, G.A. Kaplan, J.T. Salonen.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: T.A. Lakka, R. Salonen, J.T. Salonen.
Collection and assembly of data: T.A. Lakka, R. Salonen, J.T. Salonen.
Lakka TA, Laukkanen JA, Rauramaa R, Salonen R, Lakka H, Kaplan GA, et al. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Men. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:12-20. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-134-1-200101020-00008
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(1):12-20.
Accumulating epidemiologic and clinical evidence indicates that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are major risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The increased risk is similar to that seen for conventional modifiable risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, and hypertension (1). Physical inactivity, which causes an estimated 12% of all deaths in the United States, is currently considered one of the most important public health problems (1). In prospective population studies, regular physical activity (2-6) and good cardiorespiratory fitness (6-9), as well as increased physical activity (10) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (11), have been associated with reduced risk for clinical events of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Clinical trials have provided additional evidence for the antiatherogenic effect of regular physical activity and good cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity alone (12), physical activity combined with a low-fat diet (13, 14) or comprehensive lifestyle modification (15-17), together with concomitant improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, slows the progression of angiographically quantified coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease.
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Cardiology, Endocrine and Metabolism, Pulmonary/Critical Care, Diabetes, Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse.
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