Janet C. Mohle-Boetani, MD, MPH; Jeff A. Farrar, DVM, PhD; S. Benson Werner, MD, MPH; Dzovag Minassian, MPH; Ray Bryant; Sharon Abbott; Laurence Slutsker, MD, MPH; Duc J. Vugia, MD, MPH; Investigation Team*
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Carmela Groves, Barbara Brynan, Ken Komatsu, Pamela D. Young, and Ellen Kenney for providing information on patients; Mark Miller, Dennis Tan, Rodney Knight, Sabrina Gilliam, and Stephanie Litwak for conducting patient interviews; Liga Kilman and Eleanor Lehnkering for laboratory support; and Barbara Sanderson for providing information on the history of sprout consumption.
Grant Support: By general public funds through the California Department of Health Services, a state agency.
Requests for Single Reprints: Janet Mohle-Boetani, MD, MPH, Disease Investigations and Surveillance Branch, Division of Communicable Diseases Control, 2151 Berkeley Way, Room 708, Berkeley, CA 94704; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Mohle-Boetani, Werner, and Vugia, Ms. Minassian, Mr. Bryant, and Ms. Abbott: Disease Investigations and Surveillance Branch, Division of Communicable Diseases Control, 2151 Berkeley Way, Room 708, Berkeley, CA 94704.
Dr. Farrar: California Department of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch, 601 North 7th Street, Sacramento, CA 94234.
Dr. Slutsker: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop F-22, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J.C. Mohle-Boetani, J.A. Farrar, S.B. Werner, D. Minassian, D.J. Vugia.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: J.C. Mohle-Boetani, J.A. Farrar, S.B. Werner, D. Minassian, R. Bryant, D.J. Vugia.
Drafting of the article: J.C. Mohle-Boetani, J.A. Farrar, D.J. Vugia.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content:
J.C. Mohle-Boetani, J.A. Farrar, S.B. Werner, D. Minassian, L. Slutsker, D.J. Vugia.
Final approval of the article: J.C. Mohle-Boetani, S.B. Werner, D. Minassian, D.J. Vugia.
Provision of study materials or patients: D. Minassian, R. Bryant.
Statistical expertise: D. Minassian.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: S.B. Werner, D. Minassian, R. Bryant, S. Abbott, L. Slutsker, D.J. Vugia.
Collection and assembly of data: J.C. Mohle-Boetani, J.A. Farrar, D. Minassian, S. Abbott.
Mohle-Boetani J., Farrar J., Werner S., Minassian D., Bryant R., Abbott S., Slutsker L., Vugia D., ; Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella Infections Associated with Sprouts in California, 1996–1998. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:239-247. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-4-200108210-00008
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(4):239-247.
Sprouts have been used medicinally in China for more than 5000 years and are now a staple of health-conscious people in the United States (1). However, raw sprouts have been the source of salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States, Canada, and Europe (2–8) and of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O157 infections in the United States and Japan (8–10). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently issued consumer advisories for sprouts and now recommends that sprout growers decontaminate seeds and obtain microbiologic testing of in-line or finished sprouts (11).
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