Francesco Landi, MD, PhD; Luigi Aloe, MD; Andrea Russo, MD; Matteo Cesari, MD; Graziano Onder, MD; Stefano Bonini, MD; Pier Ugo Carbonin, MD; Roberto Bernabei, MD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Professor Rita Levi-Montalcini for her encouragement in the realization of the study. They also thank S. Torre, MD; A. De Santis, HN; and all of the nursing home staff of Opera Santa Maria della Pace, Teaching Nursing Home of Fontecchio, for their contribution to the study protocol.
Grant Support: By a grant from the Progetto Finalizzato Invecchiamento of the Italian National Research Council. Support was also provided by interRAI, an international group of clinicians and researchers who collaborate to promote research on resident assessment instruments and quality outcomes for elderly persons. Dr. Aloe was supported by a grant from the Italian National Institute of Health (ICG 120/4RA00-90) and by a grant from the Italian National Research Council, FISR/Neurobiotechnology (192/03).
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Francesco Landi, MD, PhD, Department of Geriatrics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168 Rome, Italy; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Landi, Carbonin, and Bernabei: Department of Geriatrics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168 Rome, Italy.
Dr. Aloe: Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, National Research Council, Viale Marx, 15/43, 00137 Rome, Italy.
Dr. Russo: Teaching Nursing Home, Santa Maria della Pace, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 67020 Fontecchio (AQ), Italy.
Drs. Cesari and Onder: J. Paul Sticht Center on Aging and Rehabilitation, Wake Forest University–Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.
Dr. Bonini: Bietti Foundation, Campus Biomedico University, 00137 Rome, Italy.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: F. Landi, S. Bonini, P.U. Carbonin, R. Bernabei.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: F. Landi, M. Cesari, G. Onder.
Drafting of the article: F. Landi.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: L. Aloe, A. Russo, S. Bonini.
Final approval of the article: P.U. Carbonin, R. Bernabei.
Provision of study materials or patients: L. Aloe.
Statistical expertise: M. Cesari, G. Onder.
Collection and assembly of data: A. Russo.
Landi F., Aloe L., Russo A., Cesari M., Onder G., Bonini S., Carbonin P., Bernabei R.; Topical Treatment of Pressure Ulcers with Nerve Growth Factor: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:635-641. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-139-8-200310210-00006
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(8):635-641.
Pressure ulcers are one of the major causes of morbidity in older people and the most important care problem in nursing home residents (1, 2); they dramatically increase the cost of medical and nursing care (3). In particular, pressure ulcers of the foot are very common and are difficult to heal among elderly immobilized patients. Pressure ulcers at the malleolus, heel, or both develop as a result of pressure, shear, or friction concentrated on a small area over a bone prominence that lacks subcutaneous tissue. Regardless of stage, prompt treatment is essential. An untreated pressure sore may worsen and lead to cellulitis, chronic infection, or osteomyelitis. Management options for pressure ulcers include local wound care; surgical repair; and, more recently, topical application of growth factors.
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