Associations of Newer Cardiac Risk Factors with Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:I-26. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-1-200401060-00002
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(1):I-26.
Compared with people with healthy kidneys, people with chronic kidney disease have more cardiovascular complications, including heart attack and stroke. Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal cholesterol levels. Many people with chronic kidney disease have these traditional cardiovascular risk factors. More recently, researchers have identified other “newer” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The newer risk factors include high blood levels of substances that indicate inflammation: homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. The blood levels of specific fats are also newer risk factors: low levels of apolipoprotein A1 and high levels of apolipoprotein B or lipoprotein(a). The frequency of these newer cardiovascular risk factors in people with chronic kidney disease is unknown.
To examine the frequency of the newer cardiovascular risk factors in people with chronic kidney disease.
Adults who participated in a national health study in the United States called the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Using blood tests, the researchers divided people into 3 groups: normal kidneys, mild chronic kidney disease, or severe chronic kidney disease. They then compared the frequency of the newer risk factors among people in the 3 groups.
Kidney disease was associated with lower apolipoprotein A1 levels and with higher levels of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein.
This study cannot tell us whether these risk factors explain the higher rates of cardiovascular complications in people with chronic kidney disease. It also cannot tell us whether treating these risk factors can decrease cardiovascular complications in people with chronic kidney disease.
People with chronic kidney disease are more likely to have the newer cardiovascular risk factors than are people with healthy kidneys. Further research is necessary to learn whether changing these risk factors can help to prevent cardiovascular complications.
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Cardiology, Nephrology, Chronic Kidney Disease, Coronary Risk Factors, Prevention/Screening.
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