Jing Chen, MD, MSc; Paul Muntner, PhD; L. Lee Hamm, MD; Daniel W. Jones, MD; Vecihi Batuman, MD; Vivian Fonseca, MD; Paul K. Whelton, MD, MSc; Jiang He, MD, PhD
Grant Support: In part by grant U01 DK60963 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Chen is supported by a Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health Scholarship (K12 HD43451) from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Jiang He, MD, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL18, New Orleans, LA 70112; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Chen, Muntner, Hamm, Batuman, Fonseca, and Whelton: Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112.
Dr. Jones: University of Mississippi, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216.
Dr. He: Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL18, New Orleans, LA 70112.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J. Chen, J. He.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: J. Chen, P. Muntner, J. He.
Drafting of the article: J. Chen, J. He.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: J. Chen, P. Muntner, L.L. Hamm, D.W. Jones, V. Batuman, V. Fonseca, P.K. Whelton, J. He.
Final approval of the article: J. Chen, P. Muntner, L.L. Hamm, D.W. Jones, V. Batuman, V. Fonseca, P.K. Whelton, J. He.
Statistical expertise: J. Chen, P. Muntner, J. He.
Obtaining of funding: J. He.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J. He.
Chen J., Muntner P., Hamm L., Jones D., Batuman V., Fonseca V., Whelton P., He J.; The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:167-174. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-3-200402030-00007
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(3):167-174.
People with the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, high glucose level, and obesity) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease is associated with chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether the metabolic syndrome is independently associated with chronic kidney disease.
In this population-based study of more than 6000 adults, the risks for chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria both increased progressively as the number of components of the metabolic syndrome increased from 0 or 1 to 5.
It is difficult to disentangle the effects of the metabolic syndrome from those of hypertension and abnormal glucose metabolism. It is unclear whether treating the metabolic syndrome will prevent chronic kidney disease.
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Nephrology, Obesity, Chronic Kidney Disease.
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