Leonard Jack, PhD, MS; Leandris Liburd, MPH; Tirzah Spencer, PhD, MPH; Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, PhD, MPH
Jack L, Liburd L, Spencer T, Airhihenbuwa CO. Understanding the Environmental Issues in Diabetes Self-Management Education Research: A Reexamination of 8 Studies in Community-Based Settings. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:964-971. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-11-200406010-00038
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(11):964-971.
Ovals indicate intervention, rectangles with rounded corners indicate intermediate outcomes, and rectangles with squared corners indicate short- or long-term outcomes. Solid lines represent links that were examined in the review. Dashed lines represent linkages that were not examined, for which other published literature was used to demonstrate relationships. Reprinted from reference 2: Am J Prev Med. 2002;222(4 Suppl):39-66. Norris SL, Nichols PJ, Caspersen CJ, Glasgow RE, Engelgau MM, Jack L, et al. Increasing diabetes self-management education in community settings. A systematic review. Copyright 2002, with permission from American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
A summary of effect measure (i.e., difference between the intervention and comparison groups) was calculated for outcomes of interest. Absolute and relative differences were presented for outcomes with consistent measurement scales and relative differences for outcomes with consistent measurement scales. Pooled estimates of effect were calculated if there was sufficient number of studies with comparable outcomes and if exploratory data analysis revealed potentially diverse results in the body of literature, or if confidence intervals frequently overlapped zero. The Community Guide rules evidence characterized effectiveness as strong, sufficient, or insufficient on the basis of the number of available studies, the suitability of study designs for evaluating effectiveness, the quality of execution, the consistency of the results and the effect sizes (2).
Reprinted from reference 27: Jack L Jr, Liburd L, Vinicor F, Brody G, Murry VM. Influence of the environmental context on diabetes self-management: a rationale for developing a new research paradigm in diabetes education. Diabetes Educ. 1999;25:775-7, 779-80, 782 passim; with permission from The Diabetes Educator.
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