Howard B. Degenholtz, PhD; YongJoo Rhee, MPH, PhD; Robert M. Arnold, MD
Preliminary results were presented at the 53rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago, Illinois, 14–18 November 2001.
Grant Support: By the National Institute on Aging (grant 1R0 3AG18811-01, “Advance Directives Among the Oldest Old,” Howard B. Degenholtz, principal investigator). Dr. Arnold was supported by the Project on Death in America Faculty Scholars Program, Greenwall Foundation, Ladies Hospital Aid Society of Western Pennsylvania, International Union Against Cancer Yumagiwa-Yoshida Memorial International Cancer Study Grant Fellowship, and LAS Trust Foundation.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Howard B. Degenholtz, PhD, Center for Bioethics and Health Law, University of Pittsburgh, 3708 Fifth Avenue, Suite 300, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Degenholtz: Center for Bioethics and Health Law, University of Pittsburgh, 3708 5th Avenue, Suite 300, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Dr. Arnold: Montefiore University Hospital, 9 South, 3459 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Dr. Rhee: Glennan Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Hofheimer Hall, Suite 201, 825 Fairfax Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23507-1912.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: H.B. Degenholtz, Y. Rhee.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: H.B. Degenholtz, Y. Rhee, R.M. Arnold.
Drafting of the article: H.B. Degenholtz, Y. Rhee, R.M. Arnold.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: H.B. Degenholtz, R.M. Arnold.
Final approval of the article: H.B. Degenholtz.
Statistical expertise: H.B. Degenholtz, Y. Rhee.
Obtaining of funding: H.B. Degenholtz.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: Y. Rhee.
Collection and assembly of data: Y. Rhee.
Degenholtz HB, Rhee Y, Arnold RM. Brief Communication: The Relationship between Having a Living Will and Dying in Place. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:113-117. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-141-2-200407200-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(2):113-117.
Do living wills affect where people die in the United States?
Among a nationally representative sample of 539 people older than 70 years of age who died in the early 1990s, 40% had living wills. Living wills almost always addressed wishes to limit or withhold treatments in certain circumstances and to prevent pain. Compared with those without living wills, decedents with living wills more often died outside of the hospital, had particular treatments withheld, and received palliative treatment to keep them pain-free and comfortable.
Living wills seem to be associated with dying in a setting other than a hospital.
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Geriatric Medicine, Hospital Medicine, End-of-Life Care.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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