Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH
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Hu FB, Willett WC, Manson JE. Coffee Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:323-324. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-141-4-200408170-00020
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(4):323-324.
Dr. Louria asked whether nut consumption confounded the inverse association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus in our study. We reran the analyses controlling for nut intake; the results remained virtually unchanged, suggesting that this confounding is unlikely to explain our findings.
Dr. Schaefer also raised the issue of confounding by other dietary and lifestyle factors. However, coffee consumption tends to be associated with smoking, unhealthy diet, and less exercise. Thus, such confounding would have biased the relationship between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus toward a positive association. In an ecological analysis, Dr. Schaefer did not find an association between consumption and diabetes prevalence in 17 countries. However, such analyses can be highly misleading because they are potentially confounded by economic developments, local coffee production, and important dietary and lifestyle factors.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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