Roger Chou, MD; Laurie Hoyt Huffman, MS; Rongwei Fu, PhD; Ariel K. Smits, MD, MPH; P. Todd Korthuis, MD, MPH
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Kim Villemyer for her help in preparing the full evidence report and the manuscript, Christina Bougatsos for her help in preparing the manuscript, and Andrew Hamilton, MLS, MS, for conducting the literature searches. They also thank Heidi D. Nelson, MD, MPH; David Lanier, MD; members of the USPSTF; and reviewers for their contributions to this project.
Grant Support: This study was conducted by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, contract 290-02-0024, Task Order no. 2, for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Roger Chou, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Chou and Ms. Hoyt Huffman: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Fu: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code CB 669, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Smits: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code FM, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Korthuis: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code L-475, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
HIV infection affects 850 000 to 950 000 persons in the United States. The management and outcomes of HIV infection have changed substantially since the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued recommendations in 1996.
To synthesize the evidence on risks and benefits of screening for HIV infection.
MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, reference lists, and experts.
Studies of screening, risk factor assessment, accuracy of testing, follow-up testing, and efficacy of interventions.
Data on settings, patients, interventions, and outcomes were abstracted for included studies; quality was graded according to criteria developed by the Task Force.
No trials directly link screening for HIV with clinical outcomes. Many HIV-infected persons in the United States currently receive diagnosis at advanced stages of disease, and almost all will progress to AIDS if untreated. Screening based on risk factors could identify persons at substantially higher risk but would miss a substantial proportion of those infected. Screening tests for HIV are extremely (>99%) accurate. Acceptance rates for screening and use of recommended interventions vary widely. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) substantially reduces the risk for clinical progression or death in patients with immunologically advanced disease. Along with other adverse events, HAART is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular complications, although absolute rates are low after 3 to 4 years.
Data are insufficient to estimate the effects of screening and interventions on transmission rates or in patients with less immunologically advanced disease. Long-term data on adverse events associated with HAART are not yet available.
Benefits of HIV screening appear to outweigh harms. The yield from screening higher-prevalence populations would be substantially higher than that from screening the general population.
Screening for HIV—analytic framework for screening asymptomatic adolescents and adults.KQ
Table 1. Asymptomatic Adolescents and Adults at High Risk for HIV Infection
Table 2. Effectiveness of Primary Prophylaxis againstPneumocystis cariniiPneumonia and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients
Table 3. Effectiveness of Primary Prophylaxis against DisseminatedMycobacterium avium intracellulareInfection in HIV-Positive Patients
Table 4. Studies Evaluating When To Initiate Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Patients
Table 5. Outcomes of Counseling and One-Time Screening for HIV Infection after 3 Years in 3 Hypothetical Cohorts of 10 000 Asymptomatic Adolescents and Adults
Table 6. Summary of Findings of the Systematic Evidence Review
Appendix Table. Base-Case Assumptions for Outcomes Tables (Table 5) of Counseling and One-Time Screening for HIV Infection
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Chou R, Huffman LH, Fu R, Smits AK, Korthuis PT. Screening for HIV: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:55-73. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-1-200507050-00010
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(1):55-73.
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