Anna Wald, MD, MPH; Andria G.M. Langenberg, MD; Elizabeth Krantz, MS; John M. Douglas, Jr, MD; H. Hunter Handsfield, MD; Richard P. DiCarlo, MD; Adaora A. Adimora, MD, MPH; Allen E. Izu, MD; Rhoda Ashley Morrow, PhD; Lawrence Corey, MD
Note: This paper was presented in part at the 2002 National STD Prevention Conference, San Diego, California, 4–7 March 2002.
Grant Support: In part by National Institutes of Health Herpes Program Project Grant AI-30731 and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prevention Research Initiative UR6/CCU017828-02.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Employment: A.G.M. Langenberg (Chiron Corp., Corgentech, Inc.), A.E. Izu (Chiron Corp.); Stock ownership or options (other than mutual funds): A.G.M. Langenberg (Chiron Corp.), A.E. Izu (Chiron Corp.); Grants received: R.A. Morrow (Chiron Corp.), L. Corey (Chiron Corp.).
Requests for Single Reprints: Anna Wald, MD, MPH, University of Washington, Virology Research Clinic, 600 Broadway, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98122; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Wald and Ms. Krantz: University of Washington, Virology Research Clinic, 600 Broadway, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98122.
Dr. Langenberg: Corgentec, Inc., 650 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080.
Dr. Douglas: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Dr. Handsfield: University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104.
Dr. DiCarlo: Louisiana University School of Medicine, 2020 Gravier Street, Suite 102, New Orleans, LA 70012.
Dr. Adimora: Division of Infectious Disease, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB 7030, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.
Dr. Izu: Chiron Corporation, 4560 Horton Street, Emeryville, CA 94608.
Dr. Morrow: University of Washington, Box 359300-W8814, Seattle, WA 98195.
Dr. Corey: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: A. Wald, A.G.M. Langenberg, A.E. Izu, L. Corey.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: A. Wald, E. Krantz, A.E. Izu, L. Corey.
Drafting of the article: A. Wald, E. Krantz.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: A. Wald, A.G.M. Langenberg, J.M. Douglas Jr, R.P. DiCarlo, R.A. Morrow, L. Corey.
Final approval of the article: A. Wald, A.G.M. Langenberg, E. Krantz, J.M. Douglas Jr., H.H. Handsfield, R.P. DiCarlo, A.A. Adimora, A.E. Izu, R.A. Morrow, L. Corey.
Provision of study materials or patients: J.M. Douglas Jr., H.H. Handsfield, R.P. DiCarlo, A.A. Adimora.
Statistical expertise: E. Krantz.
Obtaining of funding: A. Wald, L. Corey.
Administrative, technical, or logistical support: A. Wald, R.A. Morrow, L. Corey.
Collection and assembly of data: A.G.M. Langenberg, J.M. Douglas Jr., H.H. Handsfield, R.P. DiCarlo, A.A. Adimora, A.E. Izu, R.A. Morrow.
Few studies have evaluated the relationship between condom use and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HSV type 1 (HSV-1) acquisition.
To assess the relationship between condom use and acquisition of HSV-2 and HSV-1 among men and women.
Analysis of data collected as part of a clinical trial of an ineffective candidate vaccine for HSV-2.
Sexually transmitted disease clinics.
Men and women at risk for HSV-2 acquisition, defined as having 4 or more sexual partners or having a sexually transmitted disease in the past year.
Acquisition of HSV-2 and HSV-1 as measured by viral culture or change to positive HSV serostatus.
Of 1843 participants, 118 (6.4%) became infected with HSV-2. In multivariate analyses, participants reporting more frequent use of condoms were at lower risk for acquiring HSV-2 than participants who used condoms less frequently (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95]); categories of increasing condom use were 0% to 25%, 25% to 75%, and greater than 75% of sexual acts. Nineteen (2.9%) of 659 participants at risk for infection with HSV-1 became infected. No statistically significant association between condom use and infection with HSV-1 was found (hazard ratio, 0.79 [CI, 0.48 to 1.31]).
Use of condoms was measured by self-report, and persons who used condoms may have differed from those who did not.
Consistent use of condoms is associated with lower rates of infection with HSV-2 and should be routinely recommended.
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Wald A, Langenberg AG, Krantz E, Douglas JM, Handsfield HH, DiCarlo RP, et al. The Relationship between Condom Use and Herpes Simplex Virus Acquisition. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:707-713. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-10-200511150-00007
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(10):707-713.
Infectious Disease, Prevention/Screening, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vaccines/Immunization.
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