Jon-Erik C. Holty, MD, MS; Dena M. Bravata, MD, MS; Hau Liu, MD, MPH, MBA; Richard A. Olshen, PhD; Kathryn M. McDonald, MM; Douglas K. Owens, MD, MS
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Corinna Haberland, MD, MS; Veronika Sharp, MD; Pavel Strnad, MD; Kelvin Tan, MS; Suzana Tulac, PhD; and Irina Worthey for their assistance in translating non–English-language articles. The authors also thank Ingram Olkin, PhD, for statistical assistance; Nathaniel Hupert, MD, MPH, for comments on the manuscript; and Rebecca Kim and Emilee Wilhelm for retrieving articles.
Grant Support: This work was performed by the Stanford University–University of California, San Francisco, Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (contract no. 290-02-0017). This project was also supported in part by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Olshen was supported in part by National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering grant 2-R01-EB-002784-30.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Jon-Erik C. Holty, MD, MS, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, H3143, Stanford, CA 94305-5236.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Holty: Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, H3143, Stanford, CA 94305-5236.
Drs. Bravata and Liu and Ms. McDonald: Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University, 117 Encina Commons, Stanford, CA 94305-6019.
Dr. Olshen: Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, T138C Redwood Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5405.
Dr. Owens: Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue (111A), Palo Alto, CA 94304.
Mortality from inhalational anthrax during the 2001 U.S. attack was substantially lower than that reported historically.
To systematically review all published inhalational anthrax case reports to evaluate the predictors of disease progression and mortality.
MEDLINE (1966–2005), 14 selected journal indexes (1900–1966), and bibliographies of all retrieved articles.
Case reports (in any language) between 1900 and 2005 that met predefined criteria.
Two authors (1 author for non–English-language reports) independently abstracted patient data.
The authors found 106 reports of 82 cases of inhalational anthrax. Mortality was statistically significantly lower for patients receiving antibiotics or anthrax antiserum during the prodromal phase of disease, multidrug antibiotic regimens, or pleural fluid drainage. Patients in the 2001 U.S. attack were less likely to die than historical anthrax case-patients (45% vs. 92%; P < 0.001) and were more likely to receive antibiotics during the prodromal phase (64% vs. 13%; P < 0.001), multidrug regimens (91% vs. 50%; P = 0.027), or pleural fluid drainage (73% vs. 11%; P < 0.001). Patients who progressed to the fulminant phase had a mortality rate of 97% (regardless of the treatment they received), and all patients with anthrax meningoencephalitis died.
This was a retrospective case review of previously published heterogeneous reports.
Despite advances in supportive care, fulminant-phase inhalational anthrax is usually fatal. Initiation of antibiotic or anthrax antiserum therapy during the prodromal phase is associated with markedly improved survival, although other aspects of care, differences in clinical circumstances, or unreported factors may contribute to this observed reduction in mortality. Efforts to improve early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate antibiotics are critical to reducing mortality.
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Holty JC, Bravata DM, Liu H, Olshen RA, McDonald KM, Owens DK. Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:270–280. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-144-4-200602210-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(4):270-280.
Bioterrorism Infectious Agents, Infectious Disease, Pulmonary/Critical Care.
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