Thomas A. Peterman, MD, MSc; Lin H. Tian, MD, MS; Carol A. Metcalf, MBChB, MPH; Catherine L. Satterwhite, MSPH, MPH; C. Kevin Malotte, DrPH; Nettie DeAugustine, BA; Sindy M. Paul, MD, MPH; Helene Cross, PhD; Cornelis A. Rietmeijer, MD, PhD; John M. Douglas, MD; RESPECT-2 Study Group*
Grant Support: None.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Grants received: C.K. Malotte (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
Requests for Single Reprints: Thomas A. Peterman, MD, MSc, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop E-02, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Peterman, Tian, and Douglas and Ms. Satterwhite: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop E-02, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Dr. Metcalf: Human Sciences Research Council, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria, 0002 Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
Dr. Malotte: California State University, Long Beach, 5500 Atherton Street, Suite 400, Long Beach, CA 90815.
Ms. DeAugustine: City of Long Beach Department of Health, 2525 Grand Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815.
Dr. Paul: New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, P.O. Box 363, Trenton, NJ 08625-0363.
Dr. Cross: New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Box 363, Trenton, NJ 08625-0363.
Dr. Rietmeijer: Denver Public Health Department, 605 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: T.A. Peterman, C.A. Metcalf, S.M. Paul, H. Cross, C.A. Rietmeijer, J.M. Douglas Jr.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: T.A. Peterman, L.H. Tian, C.A. Metcalf, C.L. Satterwhite, S.M. Paul, C.A. Rietmeijer.
Drafting of the article: T.A. Peterman, S.M. Paul, C.A. Rietmeijer.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: T.A. Peterman, C.A. Metcalf, C.K. Malotte, S.M. Paul, C.A. Rietmeijer, J.M. Douglas Jr.
Final approval of the article: T.A. Peterman, L.H. Tian, C.A. Metcalf, C.L. Satterwhite, C.K. Malotte, N. DeAugustine, S.M. Paul, H. Cross, C.A. Rietmeijer, J.M. Douglas Jr.
Provision of study materials or patients: N. DeAugustine, S.M. Paul, C.A. Rietmeijer, J.M. Douglas Jr.
Statistical expertise: L.H. Tian.
Obtaining of funding: H. Cross, C.A. Rietmeijer.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J.M. Douglas, H. Cross.
Collection and assembly of data: C.A. Metcalf, C.L. Satterwhite, C.K. Malotte, S.M. Paul, H. Cross, C.A. Rietmeijer.
Peterman T., Tian L., Metcalf C., Satterwhite C., Malotte C., DeAugustine N., Paul S., Cross H., Rietmeijer C., Douglas J., ; High Incidence of New Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Year following a Sexually Transmitted Infection: A Case for Rescreening. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:564-572. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-145-8-200610170-00005
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(8):564-572.
In 1985, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) treatment guidelines recommended that persons infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae should return for a “test of cure” to be sure that the antibiotics had cured the infection (1). With new medications, treatment failure became rare, and by 1989, the guidelines suggested testing 1 to 2 months after treatment to detect treatment failure and reinfection (2). By 1993, the guidelines stated only that a test of cure was not recommended for N. gonorrhoeae(3). Test of cure has been unnecessary for Chlamydia trachomatis after treatment with first-line drugs, but infections detected among women several months after treatment have suggested that rescreening might be effective for detecting reinfection (3). Recent studies have found that 11% to 15% of women treated for C. trachomatis were infected when retested 3 to 4 months after treatment, possibly due to treatment failure, reinfection from an untreated partner, or infection from a new partner (4-6). New infections are often asymptomatic. One study with scheduled follow-up visits found that 62% of new C. trachomatis infections in men and in women were asymptomatic or unrecognized and would therefore probably be missed without rescreening (7). Untreated C. trachomatis infections can persist for years (8) and put infected women at risk for complications of asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (9). In addition, transmission from asymptomatic persons may be responsible for most new infections in a community (10).
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Infectious Disease, Sexually Transmitted Infections.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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