Mark Loeb, MD, MSc; Steven Hanna, PhD; Lindsay Nicolle, MD; John Eyles, PhD; Susan Elliott, PhD; Michel Rathbone, MD; Michael Drebot, PhD; Binod Neupane, MSc; Margaret Fearon, MD; James Mahony, PhD
Grant Support: Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant no. 69010).
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol and data set: Not available. Statistical code: The code for the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling is available from Dr. Hanna (e-mail, email@example.com).
Requests for Single Reprints: Mark Loeb, MD, MSc, McMaster University, MDCL 3200, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Loeb and Mr. Neupane: McMaster University, MDCL 3200, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada.
Dr. Hanna: McMaster University, 1400 Main Street West, CE&B, IAHS Building, Room 408, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1C7, Canada.
Dr. Nicolle: University of Manitoba, GG443-820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3N 0A3, Canada.
Dr. Eyles: McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, General Sciences Building, Room 217, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada.
Dr. Elliott: McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, General Science Building, Room 229, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada.
Dr. Rathbone: McMaster University/Henderson Hospital, 711 Concession Street, 70 Wing, Ground Floor, Room 23, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 1C3, Canada.
Dr. Drebot: National Microbiology Laboratory, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada.
Dr. Fearon: Canadian Blood Services, 87 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M1, Canada.
Dr. Mahony: St. Joseph's Healthcare, 50 Charlton Avenue East, Luke Wing, Room 424, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6, Canada.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, S. Elliott, J. Mahony, M. Rathbone.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, B. Neupane, M. Rathbone, M. Drebot.
Drafting of the article: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, M. Drebot.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, J. Eyles, S. Elliott, J. Mahony, M. Rathbone, M. Drebot.
Final approval of the article: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, L. Nicolle, J. Eyles, J. Mahony, M. Rathbone, M. Drebot.
Provision of study materials or patients: M. Loeb, L. Nicolle, M. Drebot.
Statistical expertise: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, B. Neupane.
Obtaining of funding: M. Loeb, S. Hanna, J. Mahony.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: M. Loeb, M. Fearon, J. Mahony.
Collection and assembly of data: M. Loeb, L. Nicolle.
Loeb M, Hanna S, Nicolle L, Eyles J, Elliott S, Rathbone M, et al. Prognosis after West Nile Virus Infection. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:232-241. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-149-4-200808190-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(4):232-241.
West Nile virus, endemic to Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, has caused recurrent outbreaks in the United States and Canada since 1999 (1, 2). Approximately 20% of infected persons develop a clinical presentation that can range from a mild influenza-like illness to neuroinvasive diseases, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis (3).
Recent studies of persons infected with West Nile virus report that symptoms and signs, such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and motor abnormalities, can persist for months after symptom onset (4–14). Little is known, however, about how physical and mental functioning changes over time or about long-term recovery among infected persons.
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