Robert E. Eckart, DO; Michael E. Field, MD; Tomasz W. Hruczkowski, MD; Daniel E. Forman, MD; Sharmila Dorbala, MBBS; Marcelo F. Di Carli, MD; Christine E. Albert, MD, MPH; William H. Maisel, MD, MPH; Laurence M. Epstein, MD; William G. Stevenson, MD
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Honoraria: L.M. Epstein (Medtronic, Boston Scientific, St. Jude). Grants received: L.M. Epstein (Medtronic, Boston Scientific, Biosense Webster).
Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Available from Brigham and Women's Hospital Institutional Review Board, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Eckart (e-mail, email@example.com). Data set: Certain portions of the analytic data set are available to approved individuals through written agreements with Dr. Eckart (e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org).
Requests for Single Reprints: MAJ Robert E. Eckart, MC, USA, Arrhythmia Service (ATTN: MCHE-MDC), 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX 78234; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Eckart: Arrhythmia Service (ATTN: MCHE-MDC), 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX 78234.
Dr. Field: Cardiovascular Consultants of Maine, P.A., 96 Campus Drive, Suite 1, Scarborough, ME 04074.
Dr. Hruczkowski: Cardiology Arrhythmia Services, 2C1.16 Walter Mackenzie Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7, Canada.
Drs. Forman, Dorbala, Di Carli, Albert, Epstein, and Stevenson: Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115.
Dr. Maisel: Cardiovascular Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 185 Pilgrim Road, Baker 4, Boston, MA 02215.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: R.E. Eckart, M.E. Field, C.E. Albert, W.H. Maisel, L.M. Epsteìn, W.G. Stevenson.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: R.E. Eckart, M.E. Field, T.W. Hruczkowski, M.F. Di Carli, C.E. Albert, W.H. Maisel.
Drafting of the article: R.E. Eckart, M.E. Field, T.W. Hruczkowski, M.F. Di Carli, W.H. Maisel, L.M. Epsteìn.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: R.E. Eckart, S. Dorbala, M.F. Di Carli, C.E. Albert, W.H. Maisel, L.M. Epsteìn, W.G. Stevenson.
Final approval of the article: R.E. Eckart, S. Dorbala, M.F. Di Carli, W.H. Maisel, L.M. Epsteìn, W.G. Stevenson.
Provision of study materials or patients: R.E. Eckart, S. Dorbala, M.F. Di Carli, L.M. Epsteìn.
Statistical expertise: R.E. Eckart, W.H. Maisel.
Obtaining of funding: R.E. Eckart.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: R.E. Eckart.
Collection and assembly of data: R.E. Eckart, T.W. Hruczkowskì, M.F. Di Carli.
Eckart R., Field M., Hruczkowski T., Forman D., Dorbala S., Di Carli M., Albert C., Maisel W., Epstein L., Stevenson W.; Association of Electrocardiographic Morphology of Exercise-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmia with Mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:451-460. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-149-7-200810070-00005
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(7):451-460.
The prognostic importance of ventricular arrhythmias that occur during stress testing, or exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA), remains controversial (1–3). Studies have shown that EIVA, when defined as 1 or more induced ectopic beats, is associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and adverse clinical outcomes (4, 5). In persons without apparent heart disease, EIVA may not be predictive of short-term adverse outcomes (6), but long-term follow-up suggests that repetitive forms of EIVA (couplets and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia) may indicate increased risk after controlling for traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (7). Similarly, studies of the prognostic value of ventricular ectopy during recovery have had conflicting results (8, 9).
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