Kenneth H. Mayer, MD; Douglas Krakower, MD
During the past 2 years, several pivotal clinical trials have proven that the use of antiretrovirals by HIV-infected and at-risk uninfected persons can decrease the probability of HIV being transmitted sexually. The initial chemoprophylaxis studies evaluated tenofovir administered topically or orally (with or without emtricitabine). However, several questions remain. Some subsequent primary prevention studies did not replicate the results of the initial studies, raising questions about differences in the behaviors of participants in each study (in particular about medication adherence), as well as whether pharmacologic or local mucosal factors might explain the variable efficacy estimates. Other antiretrovirals and delivery systems are being evaluated to maximize the efficacy of primary chemoprophylactic approaches. At present, increasing access to antiretroviral treatment globally is a priority, because expanding access to medication that can prevent morbidity and mortality is itself an important public health goal and may reasonably be expected to decrease HIV incidence. However, for treatment as prevention to be maximally effective, increases in HIV testing, health care workers, and infrastructure are needed, in addition to medications and laboratory support for clinical monitoring. A combination of approaches is needed to most quickly decrease the current trends in HIV incidence, including early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for HIV-infected persons. These approaches can be coupled with appropriately tailored interventions for populations at greatest risk for infection (for example, men who have sex with men and sex workers), including male circumcision, behavioral interventions, and chemoprophylaxis. However, a substantial gap exists between current expenditures and unmet needs, which suggests that mobilization of political will is needed for this combination approach to be successful.
The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.
Mayer KH, Krakower D. Antiretroviral Medication and HIV Prevention: New Steps Forward and New Questions. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:312–314. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-156-4-201202210-00383
Download citation file:
Published: Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(4):312-314.
HIV, Infectious Disease, Prevention/Screening.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Physicians. All Rights Reserved.
Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
Conditions of Use