Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices†
†For a list of members of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, see the Appendix.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: To assure the integrity of the ACIP, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has taken steps to assure that there is technical compliance with ethics statutes and regulations regarding financial conflicts of interest. Concerns regarding the potential for the appearance of a conflict are addressed, or avoided altogether, through both pre- and postappointment considerations. Individuals with particular vaccine-related interests will not be considered for appointment to the committee. Potential nominees are screened for conflicts of interest, and if any are found, they are asked to divest or forgo certain vaccine-related activities. In addition, at the beginning of each ACIP meeting, each member is asked to declare his or her conflicts. Members with conflicts are not permitted to vote if a conflict involves the vaccine or biologic being voted upon. Members of the ACIP have disclosed the following:
Consultancies: C. Baker (Novartis); J.J. Treanor (AlphaVax, Dynavax, Toyama Chemical). Honoraria: C. Baker (Merck & Co. Inc., sanofi pasteur, Inhibitex, GlaxoSmithKline, Chiron). Stock ownership or options (other than mutual funds): R.L. Beck (Applera, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co. Inc., Novartis, Pfizer Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wyeth). Grants received: J.J. Treanor (GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co. Inc., Protein Sciences Corp., Sanofi, Wyeth). Institutional conflicts of interest: J.R. Gilsdorf (University of Michigan, whose School of Public Health received royalties for the live, attenuated influenza vaccine); J.J. Treanor (University of Rochester, which has a patent for an HPV vaccine and receives licensing payment from Merck & Co. Inc. and GlaxoSmithKline).
Corresponding Author: Gina T. Mootrey, DO, MPH, Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E52, Atlanta, GA 30333; e-mail, email@example.com.
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule: United States, October 2007–September 2008.
1. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap) vaccination
Tdap should replace a single dose of Td for adults age <65 years who have not previously received a dose of Tdap (either in the primary series, as a booster, or for wound management). Only 1 of 2 Tdap products (Adacel, Sanofi Pasteur) is licensed for use in adults.
Adults with uncertain histories of a complete primary vaccination series with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid–containing vaccines should begin or complete a primary vaccination series. A primary series for adults is 3 doses: administer the first 2 doses at least 4 weeks apart and the third dose 6 to 12 months after the second dose. Administer a booster dose to adults who have completed a primary series and if the last vaccination was received ≥10 years previously. Tdap or Td vaccine may be used, as indicated.
If the person is pregnant and received the last Td vaccination ≥10 years previously, administer Td during the second or third trimester; if the person received the last Td vaccination in <10 years, administer Tdap during the immediate postpartum period. A 1-time administration of 1 dose of Tdap with an interval as short as 2 years from a previous Td vaccination is recommended for postpartum women, close contacts of infants age <12 months, and all health care workers with direct patient contact. In certain situations, Td can be deferred during pregnancy and Tdap substituted in the immediate postpartum period, or Tdap can be given instead of Td to a pregnant woman after an informed discussion with the woman.
Consult the ACIP statement for recommendations for administering Td as prophylaxis in wound management.
2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination
Human papillomavirus vaccination is recommended for all women age ≤26 years who have not completed the vaccine series. History of genital warts, abnormal Papanicolaou test, or postive HPV DNA test is not evidence of prior infection with all vaccine HPV types; HPV vaccination is still recommended for these women.
Ideally, vaccine should be administered before potential exposure to HPV through sexual activity; however, women who are sexually active should still be vaccinated. Sexually active women who have not been infected with any of the HPV vaccine types receive the full benefit of the vaccination. Vaccination is less beneficial for women who have already been infected with 1 or more of the HPV vaccine types.
A complete series consists of 3 doses. The second dose should be administered 2 months after the first dose; the third dose should be administered 6 months after the first dose.
Although HPV vaccination is not specifically recommended for females with the medical indications described in Figure (bottom), it can be administered because it is not a live-virus vaccine. However, immune response and vaccine efficacy might be less than that in persons who do not have the medical indications described or who are immunocompetent.
3. Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination
Measles component: Adults born before 1957 can be considered immune to measles. Adults born during or after 1957 should receive ≥1 dose of MMR unless they have a medical contraindication, documentation of ≥1 dose, history of measles based on health care provider diagnosis, or laboratory evidence of immunity.
A second dose of MMR is recommended for adults who 1) have been recently exposed to measles or in an outbreak setting; 2) have been previously vaccinated with killed measles vaccine; 3) have been vaccinated with an unknown type of measles vaccine during 1963–1967; 4) are students in postsecondary educational institutions; 5) work in a health care facility; or 6) plan to travel internationally.
Mumps component: Adults born before 1957 can generally be considered immune to mumps. Adults born during or after 1957 should receive 1 dose of MMR unless they have a medical contraindication, history of mumps based on health care provider diagnosis, or laboratory evidence of immunity.
A second dose of MMR is recommended for adults who 1) are in an age group that is affected during a mumps outbreak; 2) are students in postsecondary educational institutions; 3) work in a health care facility; or 4) plan to travel internationally. For unvaccinated health care workers born before 1957 who do not have other evidence of mumps immunity, consider giving 1 dose on a routine basis and strongly consider giving a second dose during an outbreak.
Rubella component: Administer 1 dose of MMR vaccine to women whose rubella vaccination history is unreliable or who lack laboratory evidence of immunity. For women of childbearing age, regardless of birth year, routinely determine rubella immunity and counsel women regarding congenital rubella syndrome. Women who do not have evidence of immunity should receive MMR vaccine upon completion or termination of pregnancy and before discharge from the health care facility.
4. Varicella vaccination
All adults without evidence of immunity to varicella should receive 2 doses of single-antigen varicella vaccine unless they have a medical contraindication. Special consideration should be given to those who 1) have close contact with persons at high risk for severe disease (e.g., health care personnel and family contacts of immunocompromised persons) or 2) are at high risk for exposure or transmission (e.g., teachers; child care employees; residents and staff members of institutional settings, including correctional institutions; college students; military personnel; adolescents and adults living in households with children; nonpregnant women of childbearing age; and international travelers).
Evidence of immunity to varicella in adults includes any of the following: 1) documentation of 2 doses of varicella vaccine at least 4 weeks apart; 2) U.S.-born before 1980 (although for health care personnel and pregnant women, birth before 1980 should not be considered evidence of immunity); 3) history of varicella based on diagnosis or verification of varicella by a health care provider (for a patient reporting a history of or presenting with an atypical case, a mild case, or both, health care providers should seek either an epidemiologic link with a typical varicella case or to a laboratory confirmed case or evidence of laboratory confirmation, if it was performed at the time of acute disease); 4) history of herpes zoster based on health care provider diagnosis; or 5) laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease.
Assess pregnant women for evidence of varicella immunity. Women who do not have evidence of immunity should receive dose 1 of varicella vaccine upon completion or termination of pregnancy and before discharge from the health care facility. The second dose should be administered 4 to 8 weeks after the first dose.
5. Influenza vaccination
Medical indications: Chronic disorders of the cardiovascular or pulmonary systems, including asthma; chronic metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus; renal or hepatic dysfunction; hemoglobinopathies; immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or HIV); any condition that compromises respiratory function or the handling of respiratory secretions or that can increase the risk for aspiration (e.g., cognitive dysfunction, spinal cord injury, or seizure disorder or other neuromuscular disorder); and pregnancy during the influenza season. No data exist on the risk for severe or complicated influenza disease among persons with asplenia; however, influenza is a risk factor for secondary bacterial infections that can cause severe disease among persons with asplenia.
Occupational indications: Health care personnel and employees of long-term care and assisted living facilities.
Other indications: Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care and assisted living facilities; persons likely to transmit influenza to persons at high risk (e.g., in-home household contacts and caregivers of children age 0 to 59 months, or persons of all ages with high-risk conditions); and anyone who would like to be vaccinated. Healthy, nonpregnant adults age ≤49 years without high-risk medical conditions who are not contacts of severely immunocompromised persons in special care units can receive either intranasally administered influenza vaccine (FluMist, MedImmune Vaccines, Gaithersburg, Maryland) or inactivated vaccine. Other persons should receive the inactivated vaccine.
6. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination
Medical indications: Chronic pulmonary disease (excluding asthma); chronic cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus; chronic liver diseases, including liver disease as a result of alcohol abuse (e.g., cirrhosis); chronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, or nephrotic syndrome; functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy [if elective splenectomy is planned, vaccinate at least 2 weeks before surgery]); immunosuppressive conditions; and cochlear implants and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Vaccinate as close to HIV diagnosis as possible.
Other indications: Alaska Natives and certain American Indian populations and residents of nursing homes or other long-term care facilities.
7. Revaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
One-time revaccination after 5 years for persons with chronic renal failure or the nephrotic syndrome; functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy); or immunosuppressive conditions. For persons age ≥65 years, 1-time revaccination if they were vaccinated ≥5 years previously and were age <65 years at the time of primary vaccination.
8. Hepatitis A vaccination
Medical indications: Persons with chronic liver disease and persons who receive clotting factor concentrates.
Behavioral indications: Men who have sex with men and persons who use illegal drugs.
Occupational indications: Persons working with hepatitis A virus (HAV)–infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting.
Other indications: Persons traveling to or working in countries that have high or intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A (a list of countries is available at wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx) and any person who would like to obtain immunity.
Single-antigen vaccine formulations should be administered in a 2-dose schedule at either 0 and 6 to 12 months (Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline), or 0 and 6 to 18 months (Vaqta, Merck & Co.). If the combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine (Twinrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is used, administer 3 doses at 0, 1, and 6 months.
9. Hepatitis B vaccination
Medical indications: Persons with end-stage renal disease, including patients receiving hemodialysis; persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD); persons with HIV infection; and persons with chronic liver disease.
Occupational indications: Health care personnel and public safety workers who are exposed to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids.
Behavioral indications: Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship (e.g., persons with >1 sex partner during the previous 6 months); current or recent injection drug users; and men who have sex with men.
Other indications: Household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; clients and staff members of institutions for persons with developmental disabilities; international travelers to countries with high or intermediate prevalence of chronic HBV infection (a list of countries is available at wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx); and any adult seeking protection from HBV infection.
Settings where hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all adults: STD treatment facilities; HIV testing and treatment facilities; facilities providing drug abuse treatment and prevention services; health care settings targeting services to injection drug users or men who have sex with men; correctional facilities; end-stage renal disease programs and facilities for chronic hemodialysis patients; and institutions and nonresidential day care facilities for persons with developmental disabilities.
Special formulation indications: For adult patients receiving hemodialysis and other immunocompromised adults, 1 dose of 40 µg/mL (Recombivax HB, Merck & Co.) or 2 doses of 20 µg/mL (Engerix-B, GlaxoSmithKline), administered simultaneously.
10. Meningococcal vaccination
Medical indications: Adults with anatomic or functional asplenia or terminal complement component deficiencies.
Other indications: First-year college students living in dormitories; microbiologists who are routinely exposed to isolates of Neisseria meningitidis; military recruits; and persons who travel to or live in countries in which meningococcal disease is hyperendemic or epidemic (e.g., the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season [December–June]), particularly if their contact with local populations will be prolonged. Vaccination is required by the government of Saudi Arabia for all travelers to Mecca during the annual Hajj).
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is preferred for adults with any of the preceding indications who are age ≤55 years, although meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) is an acceptable alternative. Revaccination after 3 to 5 years might be indicated for adults previously vaccinated with MPSV4 who remain at increased risk for infection (e.g., persons residing in areas in which disease is epidemic).
11. Herpes zoster vaccination
A single dose of zoster vaccine is recommended for adults 60 years of age or older regardless of whether they report a prior episode of herpes zoster. Persons with chronic medical conditions may be vaccinated unless a contraindication or precaution exists for their condition.
12. Selected conditions for whichHaemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib) vaccine may be used
Hib conjugate vaccines are licensed for children age 6 weeks to 71 months. No efficacy data are available on which to base a recommendation concerning the use of the Hib vaccine for older children and adults with the chronic conditions associated with an increased risk for Hib disease. However, studies suggest good immunogenicity in patients who have sickle cell disease, leukemia, or HIV infection or who have had splenectomies; administering vaccine to these patients is not contraindicated.
13. Immunocompromising conditions
Inactivated vaccines are generally acceptable (e.g., pneumococcal, meningococcal, influenza [trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine]) and live vaccines are generally avoided when there are immune deficiencies or immunosuppressive conditions. For guidance related to specific conditions, refer to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's “General Recommendations on Immunization” (www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/acip-list.htm).
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Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices†. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule: United States, October 2007–September 2008*. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:725–729. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-147-10-200711200-00187
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(10):725-729.
Guidelines, Infectious Disease, Prevention/Screening, Vaccines/Immunization.
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