Yuichi Mori, MD, PhD; Shin-ei Kudo, MD, PhD; Masashi Misawa, MD, PhD; Yutaka Saito, MD, PhD; Hiroaki Ikematsu, MD, PhD; Kinichi Hotta, MD; Kazuo Ohtsuka, MD, PhD; Fumihiko Urushibara, MD, PhD; Shinichi Kataoka, MD; Yushi Ogawa, MD; Yasuharu Maeda, MD, PhD; Kenichi Takeda, MD, PhD; Hiroki Nakamura, MD; Katsuro Ichimasa, MD, PhD; Toyoki Kudo, MD, PhD; Takemasa Hayashi, MD, PhD; Kunihiko Wakamura, MD, PhD; Fumio Ishida, MD, PhD; Haruhiro Inoue, MD, PhD; Hayato Itoh, PhD; Masahiro Oda, PhD; Kensaku Mori, PhD
Confident identification during colonoscopy of polyps that do not require resection could reduce costs. This study evaluated the performance of real-time computer-aided diagnosis with endocytoscopes in differentiating nonneoplastic from neoplastic colorectal polyps during colonoscopy.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):357-366. doi:10.7326/M18-0249
Amy S.B. Bohnert, PhD, MHS; Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, MPH; Jan L. Losby, PhD, MSW
The alarming rates of opioid-related harms prompted national efforts to curtail inappropriate prescribing. This study evaluated whether the release of a clinical practice guideline from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was followed by nationwide changes in opioid prescribing.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):367-375. doi:10.7326/M18-1243
Robin M. Nance, MS; J.A. Chris Delaney, PhD; Jane M. Simoni, PhD; Ira B. Wilson, MD, MSc; Kenneth H. Mayer, MD; Bridget M. Whitney, MPH; Frances M. Aunon, MS; Steven A. Safren, PhD; Michael J. Mugavero, MD, MHSc; W. Christopher Mathews, MD, MSPH; Katerina A. Christopoulos, MD, MPH; Joseph J. Eron, MD; Sonia Napravnik, PhD; Richard D. Moore, MD, MHSc; Benigno Rodriguez, MD; Bryan Lau, PhD, ScM, MHS; Rob J. Fredericksen, PhD, MPH; Michael S. Saag, MD; Mari M. Kitahata, MD, MPH; Heidi M. Crane, MD, MPH
Understanding trends and predictors of HIV viral suppression is essential for optimal outcomes and prevention efforts and is imperative to inform public health policy. This observational cohort study of patients treated at 8 HIV clinics across the United States evaluated viral suppression trends in people living with HIV, including the relationship of associated factors, such as demographic characteristics and use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):376-384. doi:10.7326/M17-2242
Agnes Dechartres, MD, PhD; Ignacio Atal, MSc; Carolina Riveros, MSc; Joerg Meerpohl, MD; Philippe Ravaud, MD, PhD
This meta-epidemiologic study of 5659 randomized trials compares treatment effects between published and unpublished trials and between trials published in English and other languages.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):385-393. doi:10.7326/M18-1517
Gojka Roglic, MD, MSc; Susan L. Norris, MD, MPH
The World Health Organization developed these guidelines to provide guidance on selection of medicines for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes and on use of insulin (human or analogue) in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The target audience includes clinicians, policymakers, national diabetes program managers, and medicine procurement officers. The target population is adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes in low-resource settings in low- or high-income countries.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):394-397. doi:10.7326/M18-1149
Linda L. Humphrey, MD, MPH; Devan Kansagara, MD, MCR; Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA; for the High Value Care Committee of the American College of Physicians
This commentary from the American College of Physicians High Value Care Committee discusses the World Health Organization guideline on managing diabetes mellitus, the nuances of clinical decision making in the face of limited evidence and resources, and the implications of the guideline for clinicians in the United States.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):398-400. doi:10.7326/M18-1148
Michael J. Pencina, PhD; Frank W. Rockhold, PhD; Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr., PhD
Experts and regulators have called for methods used in traditional trials to be adapted to “real-world” settings. This article describes 3 promising approaches that meld rigorous methodology with real-world data.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):401-402. doi:10.7326/M18-1093
Inginia Genao, MD; Jacob Gelman, JD
Since 1991, federal law has required that an employment practice be discarded if a plaintiff can show that the practice has a disparate impact based on race and the employer is unable to demonstrate that it is job-related and consistent with business necessity. This commentary discusses why the principle behind this law implies that we should stop using MCAT scores to decide who enters medical school.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):403-404. doi:10.7326/M18-0545
Michael Bretthauer, MD, PhD; Mette Kalager, MD, PhD; David S. Weinberg, MD, MSc
On 30 May 2018, the American Cancer Society (ACS) released updated guidelines for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Whereas nearly all previous guidelines recommended screening beginning at age 50 years, the ACS recommended that an additional 22 million Americans aged 45 to 49 years also participate in CRC screening. This commentary discusses concerns about the evidence behind and implications of the ACS recommendation.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):405-406. doi:10.7326/M18-1720
Michael F. Murray, MD
Geisinger Health System received considerable attention in May 2018 when it announced that DNA sequencing would become a routine part of its clinical care. This commentary discusses why identifying persons with genetic risk and effectively mitigating that risk is a worthy goal and emphasizes that the timing of the introduction of genetic data into routine clinical care is contingent on further demonstrations of clinical utility and proven implementation models.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):407-408. doi:10.7326/M18-1722
Øyvind Holme, MD, PhD; Lars Aabakken, MD, PhD
Mori and colleagues reported promising findings from a study using computer-aided diagnosis to characterize colonic polyps. The editorialists discuss these results and what is needed before such technology can be incorporated into routine colorectal cancer screening practice.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):409-410. doi:10.7326/M18-1901
Hilary D. Marston, MD, MPH; Carl W. Dieffenbach, PhD; Anthony S. Fauci, MD
In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS challenged all countries to diagnose 90% of HIV infections within their borders, provide antiretroviral therapy to 90% of diagnosed persons, and achieve viral suppression in 90% of treated patients. As of 2015, only 51% of people living with HIV in the United States had achieved viral suppression. This editorial discusses Nance and colleagues' study, which brings us closer to understanding the viral suppression gap, as well as strategies to close it.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):411-412. doi:10.7326/M18-1944
Kay Dickersin, MA, PhD; Riaz Qureshi, MSc
Dechartres and colleagues' examination of the association between publication characteristics and treatment effect estimates suggests that reporting biases are threatening our understanding of the truth in clinical evidence. The editorialists discuss the findings and propose strategies to increase the certainty that the body of evidence on which we base health-related decisions is correct.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):413-414. doi:10.7326/M18-2258
Cathryn J. Lapedis, MD, MPH
Do we have to kill ourselves to help others live?
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):415-416. doi:10.7326/M18-1398
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):417-418. doi:10.7326/L17-0303
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):418-419. doi:10.7326/L18-0037
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):419-422. doi:10.7326/M17-3306
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):422. doi:10.7326/L18-0347
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):422-423. doi:10.7326/L18-0348
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):423-424. doi:10.7326/L18-0296
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):424-425. doi:10.7326/L18-0297
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):425. doi:10.7326/L18-0349
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):425. doi:10.7326/L18-0350
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):425-426. doi:10.7326/L18-0351
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):426. doi:10.7326/L18-0298
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):426-427. doi:10.7326/L18-0299
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):427-428. doi:10.7326/L18-0300
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):428. doi:10.7326/L18-0379
James Brophy, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC26. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-026
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC27. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-027
James A. Dickinson, MBBS, PhD, CCFP
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC28. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-028
KoKo Aung, MD, MPH
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC29. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-029
Matthew B. Stanbrook, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC30. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-030
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC31. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-031
Richard W. Frieden, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC32. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-032
E. William St. Clair, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC33. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-033
Sharon Straus, MD, MSc, FRCPC; Jennifer Watt, MD, FRCPC
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC34. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-034
Thomas Fekete, MD, MACP
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):JC35. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2018-169-6-035
Geno J. Merli, MD; Howard H. Weitz, MD
The Guys (Howard and Geno) take on a tough one: Will calcium supplementation increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, and should it be avoided in a patient with aortic stenosis?
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):CG1. doi:10.7326/W18-0014
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):ED6. doi:10.7326/AFED201809180
David H. Wesorick, MD; Vineet Chopra, MD, MSc
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):HO1. doi:10.7326/AFHO201809180
Shoshana J. Herzig, MD, MPH
The combination of pain and opioid use is ubiquitous among hospitalized patients, with more than half of medical patients and almost all surgical patients receiving these drugs during hospitalization. For many people with opioid addiction, the initial exposure occurred in the hospital. This commentary reflects on how hospitalists can stop contributing to the opioid epidemic.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):HO2-HO3. doi:10.7326/M18-2295
Robert M. Centor, MD; Michael J. Barry, MD
In this episode of Annals On Call, Dr. Centor interviews Dr. Michael J. Barry about the evidence for choosing oral drug therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes from among the expanding list of options.
Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(6):OC1. doi:10.7326/A18-0004
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