Joseph W. Frank, MD, MPH; Travis I. Lovejoy, PhD, MPH; William C. Becker, MD; Benjamin J. Morasco, PhD; Christopher J. Koenig, PhD; Lilian Hoffecker, PhD, MLS; Hannah R. Dischinger, BS; Steven K. Dobscha, MD; Erin E. Krebs, MD, MPH
This systematic review of 67 studies examines the effectiveness of 8 strategies to reduce or discontinue long-term opioid therapy in adults with chronic pain.
Yogi Hale Hendlin, PhD; Jesse Elias, MA; Pamela M. Ling, MD, MPH
The use and acceptance of e-cigarettes and other noncombustible tobacco products have been growing. The authors point to a concerted effort by tobacco companies to rehabilitate their image as providers of health-related products and argue that such “pharmaceuticalization” of this industry has important consequences for public health.
Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH; Tamara M. Haegerich, PhD
Frank and colleagues' systematic review provides helpful information about tapering and discontinuing long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain. The editorialists discuss the findings and how they show that it is possible to reduce opioid use and associated risks while reducing pain and improving function and quality of life.
David H. Wesorick, MD; Vineet Chopra, MD, MSc
The editorialists discuss the 1-year anniversary of Annals for Hospitalists, which highlights hospitalist-relevant content from Annals and brings perspectives from leaders in the field.
Sheila M. Quinn, DO
Alicia I. Rolin
Mitchell Levine, MD
Ana Carolina Alba, MD; Gordon Guyatt, MD
Harrison G. Weed, MD
Henry S. Sacks, PhD, MD
Eyad Al-hihi, MD; Robert G. Badgett, MD
John T. Nguyen, MD; Donald A. Molony, MD
Brian M. Fuller, MD, MSCI; Christopher R. Carpenter, MD, MSc
Elizabeth Jackson, MD; Kim A. Eagle, MD
Ami Schattner, MD
Clifford C. Dacso, MD, MPH, MBA
Geno J. Merli, MD; Howard H. Weitz, MD
Annals Consult Guys brings a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations.
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
Pooja Lagisetty, MD, MSc; Amy Bohnert, PhD
Song-Yi Park, PhD; Neal D. Freedman, PhD; Christopher A. Haiman, ScD; Loïc Le Marchand, MD, PhD; Lynne R. Wilkens, DrPH; Veronica Wendy Setiawan, PhD
Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced mortality in studies of predominantly white populations. This study examined total and cause-specific mortality according to coffee consumption in a large multiethnic cohort.
Marc J. Gunter, PhD; Neil Murphy, PhD; Amanda J. Cross, PhD; Laure Dossus, PhD; Laureen Dartois, PhD; Guy Fagherazzi, PhD; Rudolf Kaaks, PhD; Tilman Kühn, PhD; Heiner Boeing, PhD; Krasimira Aleksandrova, PhD; Anne Tjønneland, MD, PhD; Anja Olsen, PhD; Kim Overvad, MD, PhD; Sofus Christian Larsen, PhD; Maria Luisa Redondo Cornejo, PhD; Antonio Agudo, PhD; María José Sánchez Pérez, MD, PhD; Jone M. Altzibar, PhD; Carmen Navarro, MD, PhD; Eva Ardanaz, MD, PhD; Kay-Tee Khaw, MB BChir; Adam Butterworth, PhD; Kathryn E. Bradbury, PhD; Antonia Trichopoulou, MD, PhD; Pagona Lagiou, MD, PhD; Dimitrios Trichopoulos, MD, PhD; Domenico Palli, MD; Sara Grioni, BSc; Paolo Vineis, MD, MPH; Salvatore Panico, MD, MSc; Rosario Tumino, MD; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, MD, PhD; Peter Siersema, MD, PhD; Max Leenders, PhD; Joline W.J. Beulens, PhD; Cuno U. Uiterwaal, MD, PhD; Peter Wallström, MD, PhD; Lena Maria Nilsson, PhD; Rikard Landberg, PhD; Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, PhD; Guri Skeie, PhD; Tonje Braaten, PhD; Paul Brennan, PhD; Idlir Licaj, PhD; David C. Muller, PhD; Rashmi Sinha, PhD; Nick Wareham, PhD, MBBS; Elio Riboli, MD, ScM
Although coffee consumption has been associated with decreased mortality in some studies, whether this varies according to cultural differences in preparation methods is not known. This study used a large multinational European cohort to compare the associations between coffee consumption and mortality among countries with varying coffee preparation methods.
Tyler J. VanderWeele, PhD; Peng Ding, PhD
Observational studies that assess causality between a treatment and an outcome often are subject to confounding from unmeasured or uncontrolled factors. Sensitivity analysis may be used to assess how robust reported results are to such unmeasured confounding. This article introduces the “E-value,” a new measure related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that constitutes a simple form of sensitivity analysis.
Eliseo Guallar, MD, DrPH; Elena Blasco-Colmenares, MD, PhD, MPH; Dan E. Arking, PhD; Di Zhao, PhD
In this issue, 2 large studies provide new evidence on the association of coffee intake with mortality. The editorialists discuss these findings in light of previous evidence and conclude that coffee intake can be part of a healthy diet.
A. Russell Localio, PhD; Catherine B. Stack, PhD; Michael E. Griswold, PhD
In their current article in Annals, VanderWeele and Ding introduce the “E-value” as a simple measure of the potential for bias arising from unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Using an example of an observational study of coffee intake and mortality, the editorialists discuss how the E-value can help researchers explore the possible influence of bias from unobserved factors.
Chintan V. Dave, PharmD; Aaron S. Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH; Erin R. Fox, PharmD; Peihua Qiu, PhD; Abraham Hartzema, PharmD, MSPH, PhD
Substantial price increases for specific generic drugs have received national attention recently. Some factors that may be responsible for these price increases include shortages in the manufacturing supply chain and reductions in the number of generic drug manufacturers. This study examined the relationship between market competition levels and changes in generic drug prices between 2008 and 2013 by using prescription claims data from commercial health plans.
Gene K. Ma, MD; Colleen M. Brensinger, MS; Qufei Wu, MS; James D. Lewis, MD, MSCE
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common health care–associated infection, differs from most other infections in that it often recurs after treatment. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors analyzed data on nearly 39 million commercially insured patients in the OptumInsight Clinformatics Database to evaluate whether incidence of multiply recurrent CDI (mrCDI) is increasing, to determine whether any such increase is proportional to the increase in CDI, and to identify risk factors for mrCDI among patients with an episode of CDI.
Sameer D. Saini, MD, MS; Akbar K. Waljee, MD, MSc
Ma and colleagues report a retrospective cohort study to address gaps in our knowledge about multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (mrCDI). The editorialists discuss the findings, the limitations of the study, and why a better understanding of the epidemiology of mrCDI is a critical first step toward developing a sound strategy to address this growing public health challenge.
Jason L. Vassy, MD, MPH, SM; Kurt D. Christensen, PhD, MPH; Erica F. Schonman, MPH; Carrie L. Blout, MS, CGC; Jill O. Robinson, MA; Joel B. Krier, MD; Pamela M. Diamond, PhD; Matthew Lebo, PhD; Kalotina Machini, PhD; Danielle R. Azzariti, MS, CGC; Dmitry Dukhovny, MD, MPH; David W. Bates, MD, MSc; Calum A. MacRae, MD, PhD; Michael F. Murray, MD; Heidi L. Rehm, PhD; Amy L. McGuire, JD, PhD; Robert C. Green, MD, MPH; for the MedSeq Project
The clinical value of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in asymptomatic adults is uncertain. This pilot trial describes the effects on care of adding WGS to standardized family history assessment in primary care. The researchers observed that adding WGS to standardized family history in this population revealed new molecular findings of uncertain clinical utility and prompted clinical actions of unclear value.
Derek K. Chu, MD, PhD; Christopher M. Hillis, MD, MSc; Darryl P. Leong, MBBS(Hons), MPH, MBiostat, PhD; Sonia S. Anand, MD, PhD; Deborah M. Siegal, MD, MSc
This systematic review examines current evidence about the benefits and risks of antiplatelet therapy for adults with essential thrombocythemia, a disorder associated with high risk for both thrombosis and hemorrhage.
Steffie Woolhandler, MD, MPH; David U. Himmelstein, MD
About 28 million Americans are currently uninsured and millions more could lose coverage under policy reforms proposed in Congress. At the same time, a growing number of policy leaders have called for a national health insurance system that would cover every American. In 2002, an Institute of Medicine (IOM) review concluded that lack of insurance increases mortality, but several relevant studies have appeared since that time. This article summarizes current evidence concerning the relationship of insurance and mortality.
Joel S. Bennett, MD
Chu and colleagues report a systematic review to determine the benefits and risks of treating patients with essential thrombocythemia with antiplatelet agents. The editorialist discusses the uncertainty the review uncovers and the need for high-quality trials to definitively address this important clinical question.
Teri A. Manolio, MD, PhD
Vassy and colleagues report a pilot study of the effect of adding whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to a standardized family history assessment in primary care. The editorialist notes that the findings demonstrate that primary care physicians are capable of managing WGS findings, healthy patients tolerate this information well, and use and costs seem to increase. The unanswered question remains whether WGS will truly improve patient outcomes.
Brian J. Hemens, BScPhm, MSc, RPh; Alfonso Iorio, MD, PhD
Shekelle and colleagues describe important refinements to machine-learning software designed to reduce the need for human activity to identify relevant studies for a systematic review update. The editorialists discuss their findings and call on reviewers to evaluate these efficiency-boosting methods and reevaluate their approach to updating reviews.
Jean P. Hall, PhD
High-risk pools are included as a state option in the American Health Care Act recently passed by the U.S. House of Representatives. These plans segregate persons with preexisting conditions from the broader insurance pool to a much smaller pool with others who have potentially high costs. This commentary discusses what we know about the past performance of high-risk pools and why reinstituting them would constitute a huge step backward for American health care policy.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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