Hazel B. Nichols, PhD; Minouk J. Schoemaker, PhD; Jianwen Cai, PhD; Jiawei Xu, BS; Lauren B. Wright, MSc; Mark N. Brook, PhD; Michael E. Jones, PhD; Hans-Olov Adami, MD, PhD; Laura Baglietto, PhD; Kimberly A. Bertrand, ScD; William J. Blot, PhD; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, MD, PhD; Miren Dorronsoro, MD; Laure Dossus, PhD; A. Heather Eliassen, ScD; Graham G. Giles, PhD; Inger T. Gram, MD, PhD; Susan E. Hankinson, ScD; Judy Hoffman-Bolton, AA; Rudolf Kaaks, PhD; Timothy J. Key, DPhil; Cari M. Kitahara, PhD; Susanna C. Larsson, PhD; Martha Linet, MD; Melissa A. Merritt, PhD; Roger L. Milne, PhD; Valeria Pala, DrSc; Julie R. Palmer, ScD; Petra H. Peeters, MD, PhD; Elio Riboli, MD; Malin Sund, MD, PhD; Rulla M. Tamimi, ScD; Anne Tjønneland, MD, PhD, DMSc; Antonia Trichopoulou, MD, PhD; Giske Ursin, MD; Lars Vatten, MD, PhD; Kala Visvanathan, MD; Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, PhD; Alicja Wolk, DrMedSc; Wei Zheng, MD, PhD; Clarice R. Weinberg, PhD; Anthony J. Swerdlow, DM, DSc; Dale P. Sandler, PhD
Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but there is evidence that breast cancer risk may increase shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with such factors as breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth, this study pooled individual-level data for women younger than 55 years from 15 prospective cohort studies.
Antoine Meyer, MD; Jérémie Rudant, MD, PhD; Jérôme Drouin; Alain Weill, MD; Franck Carbonnel, MD, PhD; Joël Coste, MD, PhD
CT-P13 is a biosimilar of the reference product, infliximab and is an approved treatment for Ankylosing spondylitis and Rheumatoid arthritis. Regulatory agencies extended the approval of CT-P13 to other inflammatory conditions, including Crohn's disease. This analysis of French nationwide health administrative data compares outcomes among patients with Crohn's disease treated with CT-P13 or infliximab.
Rosemary Gibson, MSc
Public concern about the safety of medicines has been heightened with the recent recall of more than half of all valsartan products on the market in the United States after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration identified a probable cancer-causing chemical in the active pharmaceutical ingredient, which was made in China. This commentary discusses the increased reliance of the United States on China as a supplier of generic drugs, active pharmaceutical ingredients and the chemical building blocks and raw materials to make them.
Ole Haagen Nielsen, MD, DMSc; Mark Andrew Ainsworth, MD, PhD, DMSc
In this issue, Meyer and colleagues report a large and well-conducted cohort study that demonstrates that the effectiveness of the biosimilar CT-P13 is equivalent to that of infliximab in infliximab-naive patients with Crohn disease. The editorialists discuss the results and the assurance they provide about the effectiveness and safety of biosimilars.
Katrina Armstrong, MD, MSCE
In their article, Nichols and colleagues report the results of a large and sophisticated analysis of the relationship between childbirth and breast cancer risk. The editorial discusses the insight the study provides into this complex relationship. Although the clinical implications of these findings are limited, the temporal relationship between childbirth and breast cancer risk offers an important clue for the ongoing effort to identify the mechanisms linking reproductive history and breast cancer risk.
Henock G. Yebyo, MSc; Hélène E. Aschmann, MSc; Milo A. Puhan, MD, PhD
Most guidelines recommend statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) if 10-year risk exceeds 7.5% to 10%. However, use of statins for primary prevention of CVD is controversial and varies greatly among countries. The authors performed a quantitative benefit–harm balance modeling study among persons aged 40 to 75 years with no history of CVD to identify the expected risk level above which statins provide net benefit.
Asher J. Schranz, MD; Aaron Fleischauer, PhD; Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS; Li-Tzy Wu, RN, ScD, MA; David L. Rosen, MD, PhD
The opioid epidemic has led to an increase in hospital admissions for drug use–associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE). The authors used a statewide database to examine 10-year trends in the characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with DUA-IE, including the proportion undergoing valve surgery.
Risa B. Burns, MD, MPH; C. Christopher Smith, MD; Robert H. Shmerling, MD; Anjala Tess, MD
In 2012, the American College of Rheumatology published a guideline on gout management; a guideline from the American College of Physicians followed 5 years later. The recommendations conflict in several areas of patient management. Here, 2 experts–a generalist and a rheumatologist–debate the guidelines in general as well as in the context of a specific patient.
Alvin Rajkomar, MD; Michaela Hardt, PhD; Michael D. Howell, MD, MPH; Greg Corrado, PhD; Marshall H. Chin, MD, MPH
In this special article, the authors posit that diagnostic and therapeutic models derived from machine learning can and should be designed and implemented with principles of justice to ensure that the models benefit all patients.
Alysse G. Wurcel, MD, MS
Schranz and colleagues studied the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) in North Carolina between 2007 and 2017 and found a remarkable increase in drug use–associated IE. The editorialist discusses the findings and the need for innovative research on how to prevent endocarditis and to provide equitable, evidence-based treatment focusing not only on the microbe, but also on the underlying substance use disorder.
Steven N. Goodman, MD, MHS, PhD; Sharad Goel, MS, PhD; Mark R. Cullen, MD
Rajkomar and colleagues warn us that the introduction of machine-learned predictive algorithms into medicine might inadvertently reinforce or create inequitable treatment of protected groups, for which the computer science community has adopted the terminology of “fairness.” They present a taxonomy of pitfalls and an oversight structure to minimize ethical harms. The editorialists discuss the taxonomy and oversight structure Rajkomar and colleagues propose and conclude that no formulaic solution will be sufficient to achieve fairness.
Ilana B. Richman, MD; Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS
In this issue, Yebyo and colleagues challenge the risk thresholds in current guidelines for use of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The editorialists discuss how the findings can support patient-centered decision making, particularly for older adults or those who are more concerned about harms of treatment.
Nathaniel P. Morris, MD
Richard B. Weinberg, MD
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
Elizabeth A. Phelan, MD, MS; Katherine Ritchey, DO, MPH
Robert M. Centor, MD; Jack Ende, MD
In this episode of Annals On Call, Dr. Centor and his guest, Dr. Jack Ende, discuss how informal aspects of the teaching environment can be just as influential as the formal curriculum.
Umberin Najeeb, MD
Building on the popular Annals feature “On Being a Doctor,” storytellers share stories about the experience of doctoring on video.
Maria Jogova, MD
Jonathan Ailon, MD, MSc
Laveena Munshi, MD
Lesley Wiesenfeld, MD
Dhruv Nayyer, MD
Shaheeda Ahmed, MD
Raphael P. Rush, MD
Sarah Andersen, MD
Camilla Wong, MD, MHSc
Vladimir Sluzar, MD
Joshua Wales, MD
Grace E. Farris, MD
Annals Graphic Medicine brings together original graphic narratives, comics, animation/video, and other creative forms by those who provide or receive health care. They address medically relevant topics—whether they be poignant, thought-provoking, or just plain entertaining.
Hila Milo Rasouly, PhD; Emily E. Groopman, BA; Reuben Heyman-Kantor, BA; David A. Fasel, BS; Adele Mitrotti, MD; Rik Westland, MD, PhD; Louise Bier, MSc; Chunhua Weng, PhD; Zhong Ren, BS; Brett Copeland, BS; Priya Krithivasan, MSc; Wendy K. Chung, MD, PhD; Simone Sanna-Cherchi, MD; David B. Goldstein, PhD; Ali G. Gharavi, MD
Genome-wide sequencing is increasingly used for clinical diagnostics, with an impetus to expand reporting of secondary findings across a wide range of disorders. Analysis of population cohorts can help clarify the potential for variant misclassification and resultant unnecessary referrals to subspecialists. This study examines the burden of candidate pathogenic variants for kidney and genitourinary disorders emerging from genome-wide sequencing.
Jason L. Vassy, MD, MPH
Rasouly and colleagues' study shows that the filters and other automated components of current bioinformatics pipelines alone are insufficient to make a clinically valid determination of whether a genetic variant is disease-causing. The editorialist discusses the findings and the improvements to automated variant interpretation that are needed before entire genomes can be interpreted at scale with clinical validity.
J. Frank Wharam, MB, BCh, BAO, MPH; Christine Y. Lu, PhD; Fang Zhang, PhD; Matthew Callahan, MS; Xin Xu, MS; Jamie Wallace, BA; Stephen Soumerai, ScD; Dennis Ross-Degnan, ScD; Joseph P. Newhouse, PhD
In this observational, longitudinal, before–after study using 10 years of data from a large national health insurer, the authors sought to determine whether a transition from low-deductible to high-deductible insurance is associated with delayed medical care for macrovascular complications of diabetes.
George L. Jackson, PhD, MHA; Valerie A. Smith, DrPH; David Edelman, MD, MHS; Sandra L. Woolson, MPH; Cristina C. Hendrix, DNS, GNP-BC; Christine M. Everett, PhD, MPH, PA-C; Theodore S. Berkowitz, MS; Brandolyn S. White, MPH; Perri A. Morgan, PhD, PA-C
In this study, more than 368 000 patients with diabetes mellitus had most of their care provided by a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or physician. The researchers investigated whether hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, and serum lipoprotein cholesterol values differed among patients depending on the type of clinician providing their care.
Darren Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Editor; Sue S. Bornstein, MD; Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor-in-Chief
On 8 November 2018, the National Rifle Association (NRA) took to Twitter to admonish doctors to “stay in their lane.” The NRA does not believe firearm-related injury and its prevention is within the purview of physicians. We could not disagree more.
Mark V. Pauly, PhD
In this issue, Wharam and colleagues take a useful step in evaluation of high-deductible health insurance plans. The editorialist discusses the findings and the difficulty of determining the value of high-deductible plans, particularly for patients with chronic illness.
Anne L. Peters, MD
Jackson and colleagues showed that patients with diabetes who received care from nurse practitioners and physician assistants working within the Veterans Affairs health system had outcomes equivalent to those of patients cared for by physicians in a primary care setting. The editorialist discusses the findings and the importance of team-based care for persons with diabetes.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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