Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become less dense and bone fractures occur more easily. Fractures can lead to substantial disability and costs. Two approaches help prevent osteoporosis-related fractures. One is to promote measures that can prevent osteoporosis itself, such as adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Some drugs, such as estrogen and bisphosphonates, can also prevent osteoporosis, but experts do not recommend these drugs for general use because of side effects and expense. The second approach is to test for osteoporosis in order to identify people with low bone density. These people are at highest risk for fracture and will benefit most from drugs that prevent fracture. Testing for osteoporosis involves using a special test called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA). Doctors should suspect osteoporosis in any adult patient who has a fracture without major trauma. Wrist fractures are common among people with osteoporosis, but many patients with wrist fracture do not get tested or treated for osteoporosis.