The researchers collected information about the risk for cancer in women with the mutations and their likely outcomes. They also collected information about the benefits, harms, and costs of 6 different strategies: oral contraceptives, tamoxifen, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral mastectomy, both surgeries, or surveillance. Surveillance meant careful follow-up with yearly mammography and breast examinations with breast ultrasonography, if needed, and gynecologic examinations with pelvic ultrasonography and blood tests every 6 months. The researchers used this information to develop a computer model that simulated what would happen to women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who chose each of the 6 options. The computer model considered costs, harms, and benefits in weighing the various options. The model also considered the value of certain outcomes over others. For example, the model assumed that women valued survival with their breasts intact higher than survival after mastectomy.