Common causes of eyesight problems in persons 65 years of age or older include uncorrected refractive errors, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Refractive errors are due to changes in the shape of the eye and its lens and can usually be corrected with proper eyeglasses or contact lenses. Cataracts cloud the lens of the eye and lead to loss of vision. Cataract surgery removes the cloudy lens and replaces it with an artificial lens. Age-related macular degeneration is damage to the macula, the area of the eye that is responsible for detailed vision. Some forms of macular degeneration can be treated with lasers or injections; other forms are not treatable. A visual acuity test, such as the Snellen eye chart, identifies refractive errors, but it does not reliably detect cataracts or AMD. To detect cataracts and AMD, doctors use a special instrument to look into the eye (funduscopic examination). In 1996, the USPSTF recommended routine vision screening with the Snellen eye chart test for persons 65 years of age or older. At that time, the USPSTF decided that there was not enough evidence to recommend routine funduscopic examination for older adults who did not report problems with their eyesight.