In the United States, bladder cancer is the fourth and ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and women, respectively. In 2009, about 70,000 new cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in the United States and about 14,000 persons died of the disease. Symptoms of bladder cancer include bloody urine, a frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, and low back pain, symptoms that are also common with other conditions. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking; family history of bladder cancer; and working in the chemical, rubber, or leather industries. Screening tests that might find bladder cancer before symptoms develop include urine tests to look for blood, cancer cells, or tumor biomarkers.