The 2001 anthrax attacks also opened what was perhaps the largest epidemiologic investigation of an infectious diseases outbreak in the history of U.S. public health. Except for the 1984 investigation of the deliberate Rajneeshee salmonella contamination of salad bars in Oregon, resulting in food poisoning of more than 750 individuals (9), no local, state or federal probe into an outbreak had been so intimately linked to a parallel and concomitant criminal inquiry. On the morning of 4 October 2001, immediately following the official CDC announcement of the inhalational anthrax case at our medical center, the collective representatives of the various health agencies huddled, planned, and analyzed the gathering of scientific data and postexposure prophylaxis strategies, while their FBI counterparts, including an agent who specialized in bioterrorism, began creating a profile of an individual, or group of individuals, who might have both the knowledge and means of carrying out an act of bioterrorism using anthrax. The discovery of anthrax spores on the computer keyboard of Robert Stevens at his workplace in the America Media building, just 3 days after his fatal diagnosis, together with the finding of a trace amount of anthrax in a previously opened letter sent to NBC News in New York City, proved to be the crucial pieces of epidemiologic evidence confirming that anthrax had indeed been disseminated through the mail. The search for the anthrax-containing letter at the NBC offices had been instituted after diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in a 38-year old assistant to Tom Brokaw was confirmed.