At the heart of the ACA is a “three-legged stool” designed to solve two of the most important failures in insurance markets in the United States today: Not everyone can afford insurance, and insurers can discriminate against the sick by excluding preexisting conditions, denying or dropping coverage, and basing insurance prices on health. The first leg of the stool is insurance market reform—ending the ability of insurance companies to discriminate against the sick. No longer will people be one bad gene or one chronic condition away from being uninsured. The second is the individual mandate, which requires individuals to purchase coverage as long as it is affordable (defined as costing less than 8% of income). The mandate is fundamental; without it, sick people will disproportionately buy insurance, many healthy people will not, and prices to the sick will increase accordingly. The third leg of the stool is extensive subsidies that will make health insurance affordable for those who cannot afford it. Thus, everyone will be able to access the insurance system.