Cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Adults who eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly are at lower risk for cardiovascular disease than those who do not. National guidelines recommend that adults eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood and eat less salt, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, added sugar, and refined grains. Recommendations advise people to exercise at a moderate level (for example, walking) for at least 30 minutes at least 5 days per week or at a vigorous level (for example, running) for at least 20 minutes at least 3 days per week. Most Americans unfortunately do not follow these recommendations. One way to encourage healthy diet and exercise is for doctors and nurses to talk with patients about these behaviors in routine health care. Together they can decide whether patients will benefit from a more intensive counseling program on diet and exercise done by health educators, counselors, dietitians, or others. The USPSTF considered the evidence showing that such programs improve these behaviors and health outcomes.