Patient safety climate is a related term—often inadvertently used interchangeably with culture—that refers specifically to shared perceptions or attitudes about the norms, policies, and procedures related to patient safety among members of a group (for example, care team, unit, service, department, or organization) (11). Climate provides a snapshot of clinician and staff perceptions about the observable, surface-level aspects of culture during a particular point in time (10, 15). It is measured most often using a questionnaire or survey. Clinicians and staff are asked about aspects of their team, work area, or hospital, such as communication about safety hazards, transparency, teamwork, and leadership. Because climate is defined as a characteristic of a team or group, individual responses to survey items are usually aggregated to form unit-, department-, or higher-level scores. The difference between culture and climate is often reduced to a difference in methodology. Studies involving surveys of clinicians and staff are categorized as studies of safety climate, and ethnographic studies involving detailed, longitudinal observations are categorized as studies of safety culture. The terms are often used interchangeably in practice, but it is important to remember that there are conceptually meaningful differences in their scope and depth. For the purpose of this review, studies of both patient safety culture and climate were included. We use the term patient safety culture in discussion only to simplify the reporting of results.