The goal of ending AIDS begins with diagnosis of individual people. Current treatment has made HIV infection a chronic disease by prolonging survival and preventing further transmission. Ending the epidemic will be very difficult, and only effective screening can make it remotely possible. Given this reality, the latest HIV screening guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), published in this issue (1), are of critical significance. HIV screening goals and treatment outcomes have long been intimately connected. Progress in therapy has led to correspondingly significant updating of HIV screening guidelines, including those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the USPSTF. The USPSTF is a nongovernmental body of clinicians and public health experts from academic and private settings that publishes prevention guidelines across a wide range of health conditions. In contrast, the CDC is a federal agency with guidelines members, primarily from the agency, specifically selected for expertise in HIV and AIDS. Each group revises HIV screening guidelines with differences that reflect its organization, mission, and membership, as well as available evidence. Of note, the 2 sets of guidelines have converged as new research has answered many previous questions.