At 3, 6, and 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet. At 12 months, those in the low-carbohydrate group had lost an average of 7.7 pounds more than those in the low-fat group. Although participants in the low-fat group had a greater reduction in their waist size at 3 and 6 months, there was no difference at 12 months. Overall, blood levels of certain fats that are predictors of risk for cardiovascular disease also decreased more in the low-carbohydrate group. Physical activity was similar in the groups throughout the study, suggesting that the greater weight loss among participants in the low-carbohydrate group was not because they exercised more. When the researchers evaluated the black and white participants separately, the results were similar.