Socioeconomic factors are ultimately the key determinants of poverty-related diseases, such as TB (56). As a social disease (57), TB thrives in the shadows of prosperity. Conditions associated with poverty (such as poorly ventilated and overcrowded housing) facilitate transmission, and malnutrition, alcoholism, and substance abuse promote its evolution into active disease. Moreover, the high prevalence of TB among underserved populations, such as the homeless, prisoners, minorities, migrants, and marginalized indigenous populations, within high-income countries is indicative of enduring inequities (51). Although control programs are essential to the care of persons affected by TB and to avoid deaths, improvements in socioeconomic conditions, reductions in income disparities, and political stability are crucial factors driving down the global epidemic (58–61).