Although there were clear areas of consensus among the panelists, several areas of uncertainty were apparent. The panel members agreed that specific indications for indwelling urinary catheters are needed in the intensive care unit, such as the need for measurement of hourly urine output in critically ill patients. However, the use of catheters for daily urine volume was also considered appropriate if the urine “cannot be collected/assessed without a catheter.” Unfortunately, this indication may be influenced by such factors as workload and practicality. Although the panelists generally agreed with the CDC indications for indwelling catheters, they also believed that intermittent or external catheters were appropriate in specific clinical scenarios. However, uncertainties about the use of external catheters for incontinence were raised, such as use upon patient request or for mild cases of skin breakdown. Surprisingly, even among some experts, there was misunderstanding about the inappropriateness of external catheters for management of urine retention.