We focused on 5 common types of cancer: breast, cervical, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate. This article is intended to provide advice rather than to serve as a guideline. It is based on a narrative review of clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Cancer Society, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Urological Association, and American Gastroenterological Association. Because these organizations usually do not estimate costs in their recommendations, we searched the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query system, UpToDate, and modeling studies from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network for additional evidence from randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) or models of screening effectiveness, as well as national studies of the costs of various screening strategies for our target types of cancer. We searched MEDLINE for articles about the costs and resource use of cancer screening published within the past 5 years (1 January 2009 to 30 June 2014) in the following medical journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), JAMA Internal Medicine, Journal of General Internal Medicine, The New England Journal of Medicine, BMJ, The Lancet, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Obstetrics & Gynecology, and CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. We examined reference lists of articles to find further studies.