Smoking increases the risk for heart disease, lung disease, and some types of cancer. Smoking also increases the risk for bad outcomes of pregnancy, including miscarriage, low birthweight, and early delivery. Helping patients to stop smoking is important for doctors. Providing counseling can help some patients who smoke to quit. For other patients (if they are not pregnant), drugs may be more helpful. Combinations of both counseling and drugs are often most effective. In 2009, the USPSTF recommended that clinicians ask all adult patients about smoking, help those who smoke to quit, and give pregnant patients pregnancy-focused messages about quitting. The USPSTF wanted to see whether new studies would change its recommendations.