Influential organizations, such as the Institute of Medicine (IOM), have recognized the need to declare, disclose, and manage financial and intellectual COIs in guidelines (9). The World Health Organization (WHO) asks advisors about financial COIs and queries, “Is there any other aspect of your background or present circumstances not addressed above that might be perceived as affecting your objectivity or independence?” (17). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has a written policy on managing COIs for all its employees; board members; and members of advisory bodies, including guideline groups (18). Its policy classifies interests as being “personal nonpecuniary” (an intellectual or academic interest), “personal pecuniary,” “nonpersonal pecuniary,” (payment to a department or organization managed by someone), and “personal family.” The latter 3 may be either specific to the topic under consideration or nonspecific, which means that there is an interest in “the manufacturer or owner of the product or service, but … unrelated to the matter under consideration” (19). Management of COIs for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) requires that members who participated in determining the direction and strength of a recommendation must have no substantial financial, intellectual, or other conflicts (20). For the management of nonfinancial (indirect) COIs, the American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society (ATS), American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), and other organizations review leadership or persons with close involvement in an advocacy group; persons who are chairs or members of other guideline committees; and expert witnesses or persons with personal relationships that may interfere with an unbiased publication process at the stages of authorship, peer review, editorial decision making, or publication (1, 3, 21).