Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctica): Risks for ecosystems, human health and well-being, unprecedented challenges especially from rate of change.
Europe: Increased damage from river and coastal floods, increased water restrictions, increased damages from extreme heat events and wildfires.
Asia: Increased flood damage to infrastructure, livelihoods, and settlements; heat-related human mortality; increased drought-related water and food shortage.
Australasia: Increased flood damage to infrastructure and settlements, increased risks to coastal infrastructure and low-lying ecosystems.
Small Islands: Loss of livelihoods, settlements, infrastructure, ecosystems, services, and economic instability; risks for low-lying coastal areas.
Africa: Compounded stress on water resources, reduced crop productivity, vector- and water-borne diseases.
Central and South America: Reduced water availability and increased flooding and landslides; reduced food production and quality, spread of vector-borne diseases.