Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs predominantly in cigarette smokers. People with COPD have narrowed airways, which makes it difficult to breathe, and may also have shortness of breath and wheezing. Spirometry can measure how much air a person can blow out in 1 second (called FEV1). The FEV1 can be used to diagnose COPD and assess its severity. Doctors treat COPD by helping patients who smoke to stop. They may also use inhaled beta-agonists or anticholinergics, corticosteroids, oxygen, or pulmonary rehabilitation (which includes education and exercise).