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The Presence of Heavy Metals in Human Gallstones.

Ann Intern Med. 1931;4(10):1350-1351. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-4-10-1350
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As early as 1883, Hoppe-Seyler found copper and iron in pigment stones; but his observation excited no interest, and has apparently been forgotten until very recently, when A. F. Peel reported the presence of copper in pigment- and cholesterol-pigment-calcium stones. He found that the ash of these calculi is black, and when dissolved in acids, and ammonia added, an intense blue color is produced, thus indicating the presence of copper. In Hammarsten's textbook of physilogical chemistry the statement is made that copper and iron are found in pigment stones. Up to the present time, however, quantitative estimations and comparative studies


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