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The Intrinsic Innervation of the Mammalian Heart: An Anatomic and Experimental Study.

Edwin F. Hirsch, M.D., Ph.D., F.A.C.P.; and Theodore Cooper, M.D., Ph.D.
Ann Intern Med. 1965;62(5):1070-1071. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-62-5-1070_3
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Impulses transmitted through the complex correlating pathways of the autonomic nervous system control or influence the rhythmic contractions of the mammalian heart. Physiologists interested in cardiac functions and cardiologists interested in the clinical interpretation of cardiac physiology in health and disease appreciate fully that the nervous system exerts these controls on the heart. These specialists and others, however, have not been able to interpret adequately the observed interrelationships because the distribution of the innervation pathways within the heart and through which the controls or influences are effected have not been fully established.

Originally, the intracardiac transmission of the heart was


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