Neoplasms of the thymus are uncommon, and acquired pure red cell hypoplasia, or aplasia, is rare. However, about 50% of the latter have been associated with benign thymomas.
Approximately 40 cases of acquired pure red cell hypoplasia associated with thymoma have been reported in the past 35 years (1-4). This obscure syndrome was coincidental with carcinoma of the breast in two patients (5, 6). In addition, some thymomas without the anemia present were found with other neoplasms. These included carcinomas of lung, breast (7), tongue, thyroid, and rectum, bronchogenic adenoma, and fibrosarcoma of the arm (8).
The syndrome of thymoma