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Symptomatic Diffuse Esophageal Spasm and Its Relation to Gastrin Supersensitivity

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Gastrointestinal Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Ann Intern Med. 1975;82(5):714-715. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-82-5-714_2
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The gastrointestinal hormones, a group of peptides released at different portions of the gastrointestinal tract, have diverse effects on the motor activity of each luminal and sphincteric portion of the gut. The effects of these hormones are summarized in Table 1. Although these hormonal actions have been confirmed in multiple laboratories, the physiological significance of their effects has been challenged (1). Is each motor response to a hormone a meaningful physiological action occurring in the normal digestive state? Unfortunately the answer to this question is not known. To date, there are no proved, valid criteria upon which to base an


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