The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Book Notes |

The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema.

[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

An Eight-Year Study of Early Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease in Working Men in London.. By Fletcher Charles, Peto Richard, Tinker Cecily, Speizer Frank E.. . Oxford University Press; , Oxford, New York, and Toronto: , 1976.. Price, $19.50.

Ann Intern Med. 1978;88(3):445. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-88-3-445_1
Text Size: A A A
This excerpt has been provided in the absence of an abstract.

Monographic description of the methods and findings in an eight-year prospective study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in London, England. Appendixes include the questionnaires used, statistical considerations, radiologic criteria, and some case histories.

The main findings are stated in the Introduction:

The basic conclusion is that there are two distinct, but commonly associated, components of chronic obstructive lung disease.

The obstructive disorder, due both to intrinsic disease of the airways and to emphysema, is caused by smoking, especially of cigarettes. Only a minority of cigarette smokers are affected severely enough to become disabled by it. In them, it causes


First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $42.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.