Disseminated candidiasis has become an important infection, particularly in immunocompromised and postoperative patients. Although serologic tests may, in some settings, facilitate a premortem diagnosis, the disease is usually diagnosed by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Detection of the relatively newly recognized peripheral manifestations of candidemia may be vital to early diagnosis: endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, myocarditis, meningitis, and macronodular skin lesions. Studies in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and in-vitro manipulations have begun to elucidate normal immune defense mechanisms against Candida, including serum factors, phagocytosis, intracellular killing mechanisms, and lymphocyte function (particularly T cell). The primary drugs for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis are still amphotericin B or amphotericin B plus 5-fluorocytosine; the mainstay of therapy for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is amphotericin B. Other antifungals and immune system-stimulating modalities (transfer factor, thymosin, thymus epithelial cell transplantation, and levamisol) may be useful for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in some settings and deserve further evaluation.