The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Etiology |

Cooling Towers and Evaporative Condensers

[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

▸Requests for reprints should be addressed to Robert P. Miller, Chief Engineer; Baltimore Aircoil Company; P.O. Box 7322; Baltimore, MD 21227.

Baltimore, Maryland

© 1979 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1979;90(4):667-670. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-90-4-667
Text Size: A A A

By 31 October 1978 there had been four confirmed instances where the Legionnaires' disease bacterium had been isolated from water samples taken from cooling towers or evaporative condensers located near the site of an epidemic of Legionnaires' disease. These devices are widely used to reject unwanted heat into the atmosphere and vary greatly in size and configuration. However, the operation of all towers and condensers depends on intimate contact between the circulating water and ambient air. Airborne contaminants in the vicinity of these devices are likely to be absorbed to some degree by the circulating water. The airstream leaving a cooling tower is saturated with water vapor and may also contain a relatively minute portion of the circulating water in the form of fine droplets known as drift. It is common practice to bleed a small portion of the circulating water, including all contaminants, from the tower into a storm sewer, sanitary sewer, or even a nearby body of water.





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $42.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.