The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Ideas and Opinions |

An Additional Basic Science for Clinical Medicine: III. The Challenges of Comparison and Measurement

[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

▸Requests for reprints should be addressed to Alvan R. Feinstein, M.D.; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, P.O. 3333; New Haven, CT 06510.

New Haven, Connecticut

©1983 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1983;99(5):705-712. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-99-5-705
Text Size: A A A

The main scientific virtue of randomized allocation of treatment is an unpredictability that reduces susceptibility bias in the groups created when treatments are assigned preferentially according to prognostic differences. Even in randomized trials, however, prognostic analyses are needed for checking imbalances in the randomization, for precise clinical application of results, and for discerning disparate therapeutic effects. Improved methods of prognostic analyses can enhance effectiveness in randomized trials and credibility for nonrandomized therapeutic comparisons. Regardless of randomization, therapeutic comparisons will also be improved with better analysis of proficiency for the main treatments, better attention to identifying "soft" clinical outcome events, and development of new analytic structures for complex problems in logistics. The challenges will require better scientific methods for the two types of clinical measurement: the mensuration with which descriptive expressions are provided for individual observations; and the quantification with which individual descriptions are grouped, summarized, and compared.





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $42.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.