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American College of Physicians Ethics Manual: Part I: History of Medical Ethics, The Physician and the Patient, The Physician's Relationship to Other Physicians, The Physician and Society

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© 1984 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(1):129-137. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-101-1-129
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In 1913 Dr. Heinrich Stern, a visionary young physician, visited the Royal College of Physicians of London and recognized that the United States needed an educationally oriented organization of "internists," an organization comparable to the distinguished English College. In the United States the progress of medicine had been slow, but the various specialties of medicine had begun to emerge. The configuration of the "internist" was just gaining clarity. (Board certification originated in 1916, and the ophthalmologists led the way. An internal medicine board was not established until 1936.)

Dr. Stern's vision led to the founding of the American College of


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