Between 1973 and 1982, 110 patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease who had had disease progression while receiving MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy or a relapse after a MOPP-induced complete remission were treated with either ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) (58 patients) or B-CAVe (bleomycin, lomustine, doxorubicin, and vinblastine) (52 patients) chemotherapy in concurrent nonrandomized trials. Responses were seen in 39 of 55 (71%) evaluable ABVD-treated patients—21 (38%) complete and 18 partial responses—and in 34 of 48 (71%) evaluable B-CAVe-treated patients—21 (44%) complete and 13 partial responses. The median duration of the ABVD-induced complete remissions is greater than 25 months compared with 24.3 months for B-CAVe-induced remissions. The 5-year actuarial freedom from progression is 8.5% for evaluable ABVD-treated patients and 25% for B-CAVe-treated patients (p = 0.10). Toxicity in the two treatment groups was similar, with only significant thrombocytopenia (platelet count, < 50 000/mm3) being more common with B-CAVe. Although most patients with Hodgkin's disease refractory to MOPP treatment will respond to either ABVD or B-CAVe chemotherapy, subsequent long-term disease-free survival is unusual. The need for improved treatment programs for this patient group is evident.