The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Diagnosis and Treatment |

Diagnostic Tests in Breast Cancer: Clinical Strategies Based on Diagnostic Probabilities

[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

▸Requests for reprints should be addressed to Alvin I. Mushlin, M.D.; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue; Rochester, NY 14642.

© 1985 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1985;103(1):79-85. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-103-1-79
Text Size: A A A

Optimal diagnostic strategies used in screening for breast cancer and evaluating breast masses depend on the likelihood of malignancy, findings at physical examination, and the accuracy of tests and procedures. Results from published series, in conjunction with calculations of the probability of malignancy based on test results, indicate that only mammography is needed for screening. A clinical sequence for evaluating palpable breast masses should include a combination of mammography, ultrasound examination, and needle aspiration. In patients with negative findings, the probability of cancer will be sufficiently low to obviate the need for immediate surgical biopsy. However, if there are positive findings, or the initial clinical likelihood of malignancy is high, excision of the mass is indicated.


breast cancer





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $42.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.