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Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis Delta Virus in Homosexual Men: A Study of Four Cohorts

RACHEL E. SOLOMON, M.P.H.; RICHARD A. KASLOW, M.D.; JOHN P. PHAIR, M.D.; DAVID LYTER, M.D.; BARBARA VISSCHER, M.D.; DAVID LYMAN, M.D.; MARK T. VANRADEN, M.A.; and JOHN GERIN, M.D.
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▸ Requests for reprints should be addressed to Richard A. Kaslow, M.D.; Epidemiology and Biometry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Westwood Building, Room 739; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, MD 20892.


© 1988 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians


Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(1):51-54. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-108-1-51
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The prevalence of hepatitis delta virus antibodies was determined in four cohorts of homosexual or bisexual men positive for hepatitis B surface antigen who were evaluated between April 1984 and April 1985. Antibodies to hepatitis delta virus were found in 16 of 106 men in Los Angeles (15.1%; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 8.3% to 21.9%); 6 of 64 men in San Francisco (9.4%; 95% CI, 3.5% to 19.3%); 1 of 76 men in Pittsburgh (1.3%; 95% CI, 0.03% to 7.1%); and 0 of 52 men in Chicago (0%; 95% CI, 0% to 5.6%). From 44.0% to 65.4% of men negative for hepatitis delta virus and all men positive for hepatitis delta virus but one (P < 0.0001) were positive for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In multivariate analysis, infection with hepatitis delta virus was associated with intravenous drug use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, P < 0.01), with sexual activity as measured by number of partners (adjusted OR = 8.4, P < 0.01), and probably with rectal trauma (adjusted OR = 3.9, P = 0.17). As with HIV infection, prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection in homosexual men differs by location and is most likely transmitted both sexually and parenterally.

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