Objective: To determine if cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of premature facial wrinkling.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Smoking cessation clinic and community.
Patients: Convenience sample of 132 adult smokers and non-smokers in 1988.
Measurements: A questionnaire was administered to quantify cigarette smoking and to obtain information about possibly confounding factors such as skin pigmentation, sun exposure, age, and sex. Wrinkling was assessed using photographs of the temple region, and a severity score based on predetermined criteria was assigned. A logistic regression model, which controlled for confounding variables, was developed to assess the risk for premature wrinkling in response to pack-years of smoking.
Main Results: The prevalence of premature wrinkling was independently associated with sun exposure and pack-years of smoking. After controlling for age, sex, and sun exposure, premature wrinkling increased with increased pack-years of smoking. Heavy cigarette smokers (> 50 pack-years) were 4.7 times more likely to be wrinkled than nonsmokers (95% CI, 1.0 to 22.6; P value for trend = 0.05). Sun exposure of more than 50 000 lifetime hours also increased the risk of being excessively wrinkled 3.1-fold (CI, 1.2 to 7.1). When excessive sun exposure and cigarette smoking occurred together, the risk for developing excessive wrinkling was multiplicative (prevalence ratio of 12.0; CI, 1.5 to 530).
Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the development of premature wrinkling.