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History of Medicine |

Three Women at Johns Hopkins: Private Perspectives on Medical Coeducation in the 1890s

Joseph B. Shrager, MD
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Requests for Reprints: Joseph B. Shrager, MD, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Surgery, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Current Author Address: Dr. Shrager: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Surgery, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

© 1991 American College of PhysiciansAmerican College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1991;115(7):564-569. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-115-7-564
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This excerpt has been provided in the absence of an abstract.

Much has been written about the entry of women into American medicine. Most of this work, however, has focused on Elizabeth Blackwell's precedent-setting efforts at the Geneva Medical College beginning in 1847 or on the many women who entered one of the several all-female medical schools that were established soon thereafter. The female medical pioneers who entered predominantly male medical schools dealt with entirely different circumstances—circumstances that, in many ways, are more pertinent to contemporary issues surrounding the increasing presence of women in all varieties of medical practice.

This article focuses on three women—Dorothy Reed, Florence Sabin, and Margaret Long—who


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