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Cosmetic Surgical Procedures and Connective Tissue Disease: The Cleopatra Syndrome Revisited

Marc C. Hochberg, MD, MPH
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University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201-1734. Requests for Reprints: Marc C. Hochberg, MD, MPH, Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 419 West Redwood Street, Suite 620, Baltimore, MD 21201.

Copyright 2004 by the American College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(12):981-983. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-118-12-199306150-00013
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During the past 30 years, numerous authors have reported single patients as well as case series of patients with presumed and well-defined connective tissue diseases after cosmetic surgical procedures. These include reports of the development of systemic sclerosis and other connective tissue diseases after augmentation mammoplasty with injections of paraffin and silicone, as well as placement of silicone gel-filled breast prostheses, and a dermatomyositis or polymyositis-like syndrome after bovine collagen implants.

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